Artillery / Mortars / M37

M37

General Facts

  • TYPE
    Mortar

  • ORIGIN
    USSR

  • NICKNAMES
    M1937
    PM-37
    Type 53 (Chinese production M37)
    82 Krh/36 (Finnish designation for M36)
    82 Krh/37 (Finnish designation for M37)
    82 Krh/41 (Finnish designation for M41)

  • DESIGNED
    Early 1930's

  • DESIGNER
    B.I. Szayrin

  • PRODUCTION
    1936 - 1960's

  • PRODUCERS
    China
    Hungary
    Poland
    USSR

  • QUANTITY
    Unknown

  • UNIT COST
    Unknown

  • CHARACTERISTICS
    Easy to use
    Rugged
    Limited range
    Minimal safety margins

Introduction

The M37 mortar is a conventional 82mm mortar of Russian design. It was developed just before World War 2 in which it proved itself as the standard Soviet mortar. The family of Soviet World Ware 2 82mm mortars is often called the M37 as this was the most produced version of this mortar. Alternative names are the PM-37 and M1937. The M37 is one of the most produced mortars in the world.

Design

The M37 is a conventional muzzle loaded drop fired 82mm mortar. The M36 has a square base-plate and all subsequent versions have a round base-plate. The M36, M37 and M37M are fitted with a conventional bipod system with manual elevation and traverse. The M41 and M43 have a bipod that acts as a carriage as well while being fitted with two wheels.

Firepower

The M37 is a very rugged and easy to use weapon system. It is able to fire 15 to 25 round per minute out to a range of 3 km. Judged by today’s standards the M37 is fairly heavy and has a limited range. Modern designs in the same caliber are lighter, provide better accuracy and offer ranges of over 5 km. For most purposes the M37 will still do and those that are still in service remain a very potent weapon system

Mobility

The M37 is normally transported in a light vehicle and can be carried in several pieces over short distances. The M41 and M43 have an integrated two wheel carriage, but the improved mobility did not outweigh the reduced performance.

Users

The M37 and its derivatives were exported to most Soviet allies. The production continued well into the Cold War era until it was replaced in production by the improved 2B14 Podnos 82mm mortar. In Eastern European service it is mostly replaced by the newer 2B14 Podnos, but many remain in service around the world.

Variants

M36

M36

The M36 was the first of the Soviet 82mm mortars. The M36 has a conventional design with a standard bipod and square base-plate. It was soon replaced in production by the improved M37.

Statistics

Name: M36
Type Mortar
Crew 5
Ordnance 82mm smoothbore mortar, 1.288 m tube
Elevation ?
Traverse ?
Rate of fire 15 - 25 rpm
Range up to 3.1 km
Carriage -
Weight 57.3 kg
Length ?
Width ?
Height ?
Towing vehicle -
Speed -
Remarks MP-1, MP-2 or mechanical sight
M37

M37

The M37 is an improved version of the M36 with the main difference being the round base plate. The M37M is the newest version of the M37 family. It was developed after the M41 and M43 designs proved to be disappointing. The bipod and base-plate have been lightened. It can be identified by the muzzle safety device.

Statistics

Name: M37
Type Mortar
Crew 5
Ordnance 82mm smoothbore mortar, 1.220 m tube
Elevation +45 to +85°
Traverse 6° left and right
Rate of fire 15 - 25 rpm
Range 100 m to 3.0 km
Carriage -
Weight 56 kg
Length ?
Width ?
Height ?
Towing vehicle -
Speed -
Remarks MPM-44 sight
M41

M41

The M41 is a modified version of the M37 mortar. The bipod has been replaced by a T-shaped bipod with each bipod leg acting as an axle to which road wheels can be attached. The idea was to improve the mobility of the M37, but the bipod proved to be unstable.

Statistics

Name: M41
Type Mortar
Crew 5
Ordnance 82mm smoothbore mortar, 1.220 m tube
Elevation +45 to +85°
Traverse 5° left and right
Rate of fire 15 - 25 rpm
Range 100 m to 2.55 km
Carriage -
Weight 52 kg (firing position), 58 kg (travelling)
Length ?
Width ?
Height ?
Towing vehicle -
Speed -
Remarks -
M43

M43

The M43 is another attempt to increase the mobility of the M37. It differs from the M41 in that the bipod has dedicated feet and the wheel are permanently fixed above those feet. Just as with the M41 the M43 was discontinued in favor of the improved M37 mortar.

Statistics

Name: M43 (82mm)
Type Mortar
Crew 5
Ordnance 82mm smoothbore mortar, 1.220 m tube
Elevation +45 to +85°
Traverse 5° left and right
Rate of fire 15 - 25 rpm
Range 100 m to 2.55 km
Carriage -
Weight 58 kg
Length ?
Width ?
Height ?
Towing vehicle -
Speed -
Remarks -

Use

 
Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Angola
Armenia
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh

Belarus
Bosnia
Bulgaria
Burundi
Cambodia
Cape Verde
Chad

China
Congo, Dem Republic
Congo, Republic
Cuba
Cyprus
East Germany (former)
Egypt

Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Finland
Georgia
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau

Guyana
Hungary
India
Iraq
Kazakhstan
Laos
Latvia

Libya
Macedonia
Madagascar
Mali
Moldova
Mongolia
Morocco

Mozambique
Myanmar
Nicaragua
Nigeria
North Korea
Poland
Romania

Russia
Seychelles
Slovakia
Somalia
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Syria

Tajikistan
Tanzania
Togo
Tunisia
Turkmenistan
Uganda
Ukraine

USSR (former)
Uzbekistan
Vietnam
Yemen
Zimbabwe

82mm 2B14

The 2B14 Podnos was developed to replace the World War 2 era M37 mortar in Soviet service.