Artillery / Self-propelled howitzers / 2S1 Gvozdika

2S1 Gvozdika

General Facts

  • TYPE
    Self-propelled howitzer

  • ORIGIN
    USSR

  • NICKNAMES
    SAU-122 (Russian designation)
    M1974 (NATO designation)
    2S1 Go?dzik (Polish designation)

  • DESIGNED
    1967 - 1972

  • DESIGNER
    KhTZ (Kharkov Tractor Plant)

  • PRODUCTION
    1972 - 1991

  • PRODUCERS
    Bulgaria
    Poland
    USSR

  • QUANTITY
    Over 10.000

  • UNIT COST
    Unknown

  • CHARACTERISTICS
    Amphibious
    Good mobility
    No secondary armament
    Limited space inside

Introduction

The 2S1 Gvozdika is a tracked 122mm self-propelled howitzer of Russian origin. It was developed in the late 1960's and entered large scale production in 1971. 2S1 was the GRAU designation for the new weapon system. In service the name Gvozdika, carnation in English, is most common. In the West it was known as the M1974, based on the year it was first observed by the West.

Layout

The 2S1 has a conventional layout with the engine in the front and the turret at the rear. The crew of four consists of a commander, driver, gunner and loader. The driver is seated on the left of the engine with the rest of the crew seated in the turret. The chassis is a modified version of the MT-LB. It is somewhat higher and longer and features an additional road wheel.

Firepower

The 2S1 is fitted with the 2A31 howitzer, which is an adaptation of the ordnance of the towed D-30 howitzer. The short 122mm ordnance allows normal shells to be fired up to 15.3 km. Rocket assisted shells can be fired up to 21.9 km. A total of 40 rounds can be carried. Normally rounds from outside the vehicle would be used as only 16 rounds are directly accessible from the inside and outside there is more room for fusing the rounds. The 2S1 is not fitted with any secondary armament.

Protection

The 2S1 can be operated under full armor protection. The steel hull protects the crew from small arms fire and shell splinters. An NBC system is standard, but no smoke grenades are fitted.

Mobility

The 2S1 is fitted with a 300 hp V8 diesel engine coupled to a manual transmission. The 2S1 is fully amphibious and uses its tracks to propel it in the water.

Users

The 2S1 was widely adopted by Soviet states and its allies around the world. It was issued 36 units per artillery and motorized infantry division and 72 per tank division. Over 10.000 units were built until production ceased with the fall of the iron curtain. Production also took place in Bulgaria and Poland. Currently the 2S1 can still be found in use by many nations. Those who have the financial means are replacing the 2S1 with more modern self-propelled howitzers.

Variants

No variants

Media

Use

 
Algeria
Angola
Armenia
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Bosnia
Bulgaria

Chad
Congo, Dem Republic
Congo, Republic
Croatia
Cuba
Czech Republic
Czechoslovakia (former)

East Germany (former)
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Finland
Georgia
Hungary
India

Iran
Iraq
Kazakhstan
Kyrgyzstan
Libya
Poland
Romania

Russia
Serbia
Slovakia
Slovenia
Sudan
Syria
Togo

Turkmenistan
Ukraine
Uruguay
USSR (former)
Uzbekistan
Vietnam
Yemen

Yugoslavia (former)
Zimbabwe

2S3 Akatsiya

The 2S3 Akatsiya is a contemporary Soviet self-propelled howitzer with larger caliber ordnance.

122mm D-30

The 2S1 Gvozdika uses the same ordnance as used in the D-30 towed howitzer.