Firearms / Assault rifles / M14

M14

General Facts

  • TYPE
    Battle rifle

  • ORIGIN
    United States

  • NICKNAMES
    T57 (Taiwanese designation)

  • DESIGNED
    Early 1950's - 1958

  • DESIGNER
    Springfield

  • PRODUCTION
    1957 - present (civilian production)
    1959 - 1964 (production for US military)

  • PRODUCERS
    Taiwan (M14)
    United States - NSWC Crane (EBR)
    United States - Rock Island Arsenal (M21)
    United States - Springfield (M14, M1A, M21, M25)

  • QUANTITY
    About 1.5 million produced

  • UNIT COST
    About $1.700 for M1A in 2009
    About $3.900 for M39 in 2008

  • CHARACTERISTICS
    Very accurate
    Long and heavy
    Automatic fire hard to control

Introduction

The M14 is a battle rifle of US origin. It was developed in the 1950's to replace the M1 Garand as the standard US service weapon. On the one hand the M14 is the standard issue rifle with the shortest service life, being replaced in 1970 with the M16A1. On the other hand due to its continuing specialist use it is the weapon system with the longest service life.

Design

The M14 has been based on the succesful M1 Garand. The areas for improvement on the M1 Garand were the magazine and gas system. The 8 round stripper clips have been replaced by 20 magazines. Instead of a direct action gas system a gas expansion and cut-off system is used. Additionally the M14 fires the 7.62x51mm round to comply with NATO standards and has the capability of fully automatic fire.

Firepower

The M14 fires the 7.62x51mm NATO round from 20 round magazines. It is a select fire weapon with a rate of fire of 750 rpm. The design of the weapon combined with high rate of fire make full automatic fire very impractical. Hence the M14 is nearly always fire semi-automatic. With iron sights the effective range is claimed to be 460 meters. With optics the M14 and its derivatives can be used at ranges of over 800 meters. While being highly accurate and semi-automatic the M14 is a favored designated marksman rifle.

Users

The M14 was the standard issue rifle of the USA and was actively used during the early stages of the Vietnam war. It was replaced in service with the M16A1 and only the M21 sniper rifle remained. Over the years many M14's have been reactivated and reconfigured for use as designated marksman rifles. The M14 was also exported to allies of the USA and large quantities became available as the M14 was withdrawn as a service rifle. The M14 remains in limited use as a battle rifle.

Variants

M14

M14: The M14 is the original battle rifle from which all other versions are derived. It is a select fire rifle that fires the 7.62x51mm NATO round. The design is derived from the M1 Garand.
M14M: The M14M is a M14 modified for semi-automatic fire only and was widely sold to civilians.
M14 National Match: The National Match models feature an improved semi-automatic only trigger system.
M1A: The M1A was developed when the M14M could no longer be sold to the public. The M1A is a semi-automatic only version of the M14. As most M1A are of recent production they are fitted with a fiberglass chassis and rails for optics. The Bush rifle is a version with a shorter barrel.

  • Specifications:
  • M14
TypeBattle rifle
Caliber7.62x51mm NATO
Magazine10, 20 rounds
OperationGas operated, gas expansion and cut-off system, rotating bolt
Fire selector0-1-F
Rate of fire700 - 750 rpm
Barrel length559 mm
Rifling4 grooves, 305 mm right hand twist
Muzzle velocity853 m/s
StockFixed
Length1.120 mm
Width?
Height?
Weight5.1 kg loaded
SightsIron sights, fixed post front and tangent aperture rear, 678 mm sight radius
Remarks-

M14A1

M14A1: The M14A1 is a light support weapon that is derived from the M14. It is fitted with a bipod, pistol grip, foregrip and muzzle stabilizer. This makes the recoil easier to handle. At first it was called the M14E2 and later the M14A1. Produced only in limited quantities.

TypeLight support weapon
Caliber7.62x51mm NATO
Magazine10, 20 rounds
OperationGas operated, gas expansion and cut-off system, rotating bolt
Fire selector0-1-F
Rate of fire700 - 750 rpm
Barrel length559 mm
Rifling4 grooves, 305 mm right hand twist
Muzzle velocity853 m/s
StockFixed
Length1.12 m
Width?
Height?
Weight6.6 kg loaded
SightsIron sights, fixed post front and tangent aperture rear, 678 mm sight radius
RemarksBipod

M21

M21: The M21 is a sniper rifle that was based on the M14. It is a converted National Match rifle that has been fitted with a 3-9x scope and fires match grade ammunition. It was the US Army standard sniper rifle until the introduction of the M24 SWS.
M25: The M25 is a modernized M21 that was developed for Special Forces use besides the M24 SWS. It is fitted with a fiberglass stock, National Match action and newer optics.
M14 DMR: The M14 Designated Marksman Rifle is derived from the M14 and was developed for the USMC. It is semi-automatic only, has a fiberglass stock, is fitted with a bipod and scope mount and high powered optics are standard.

TypeSniper rifle
Caliber7.62x51mm NATO
Magazine10, 20 rounds
OperationGas operated, gas expansion and cut-off system, rotating bolt
Fire selector0-1
Rate of fireSemi-automatic
Barrel length559 mm
Rifling4 grooves, 305 mm right hand twist
Muzzle velocity853 m/s
StockFixed
Length1.118 mm
Width?
Height?
Weight5.27 kg without scope
SightsIron sights, post front and hooded aperture rear, 679 mm sight radius, Leatherwood 3-9x scope
Remarks-
TypeSniper rifle
Caliber7.62x51mm NATO
Magazine10, 20 rounds
OperationGas operated, gas expansion and cut-off system, rotating bolt
Fire selector0-1
Rate of fireSemi-automatic
Barrel length559 mm
Rifling254 mm right hand twist
Muzzle velocity?
StockFixed
Length1.118 mm
Width?
Height?
Weight5.76 kg without scope
SightsNo iron sights, Bausch & Lomb 10x40 or Leupold MK4 10x scope
RemarksBipod

Mk 14 EBR

Mk 14 EBR: The Mk 14 Enhanced Battle Rifle was developed for the US Navy SEALs as a designated marksman rifle. It is a semi-automatic M14 in a modernized package. The new chassis is much more ergonomic as it has a foldable stock, pistol grip, forward grip, bipod and accessory rails.
M39 EMR: The M39 Enhanced Marksman Rifle is a modernized version of the M14 DMR that was developed for the USMC. The areas of upgrade are the stock, chassis, bipod and optics. The end result looks quite similar to the Mk 14 EBR. The stock is now retractable, a pistol grip is fitted, the bipod is more durable, the weight is decreased and the optics are similar to the M40A3 bolt action sniper rifle.

TypeSniper rifle
Caliber7.62x51mm NATO
Magazine10, 20 rounds
OperationGas operated, gas expansion and cut-off system, rotating bolt
Fire selector0-1-F
Rate of fire700 - 750 rpm
Barrel length457 mm
Rifling?
Muzzle velocity?
StockRetractable, adjustable
Length889 mm
Width?
Height?
Weight5.1 kg without scope
SightsIron sights, normally fitted with optical sight
RemarksBipod

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