Combat vehicles / Armored personnel carriers / M113

M113

General Facts

  • TYPE
    Armored personnel carrier

  • ORIGIN
    United States

  • NICKNAMES
    Green Dragon (popular nickname)
    Mugaf (Israeli name for M577)

  • DESIGNED
    1956 -1960

  • DESIGNER
    FMC

  • PRODUCTION
    1960 - 1992 or later

  • PRODUCERS
    United States - FMC

    License production:
    Belgium
    Italy
    Pakistan

  • QUANTITY
    Over 80.000 including variants on M113 chassis

  • UNIT COST
    Unknown

  • CHARACTERISTICS
    Low production cost
    Good mobility and amphibious
    Chassis adaptable to many roles
    Cannot keep up with tanks
    Limited level of protection

Introduction

The M113 is an armored personnel carrier of US origin. It was developed in the late 1950's as a replacement for the M75 and M59 armored personnel carriers. The M75 was well armored and expensive while the M59 was highly mobile but lack protection and reliability. The M113 is one of the most numerous combat vehicles ever produced and served as a chassis for a wide variety specialist versions, some of which are described in an article of their own.

Layout

The M113 has the same layout as the earlier M75 and M59 in being an armored box on a tracked chassis. The engine and driver are located at the front. The troop compartment is located at the rear and is accessed trough a large ramp at the rear. The commander is seated behind the engine in the middle and has access to a low profile cupola which usually mounts a 12.7mm M2HB heavy machine gun.

Firepower

The M113 is armed with a 12.7mm M2HB heavy machine gun on a ring mount that is usually fitted with a gun shield and all round armored plates. The Vietnam era ACAV modification added a 7.62mm M60 machine gun behind a gun shield on each side. The M113 chassis has been used for many weapon platforms such as tank destroyers with the 106mm M40 recoilless rifles or TOW missiles and mortar carriers with a 81mm, 107mm or 120mm mortar.

Protection

The M113 has aluminum armor that protects against small arms fire and shell splinters all around. Several improvement kits exist to increase protection against larger caliber rounds and slat armor can be fitted to reduce the effect of anti-tank missiles. An NBC system is standard and smoke grenade dischargers are optional.

Mobility

The tracked chassis gives the M113 a very good cross country mobility. Originally a 209 hp petrol engine was fitted, but this was changed to a diesel engine in all subsequent production models. The maximum of 68 km/h is adequate but does not allow it to keep up with the M1 Abrams and M2 Bradley. The M113 is fully amphibious and propels itself in the water using its tracks.

Users

The main operator of the M113 was the US army, but many have been exported to US allies with most being NATO members. With the introduction of the better armed and armored M2 Bradley and the faster Stryker the use of the M113 in US service has been reduced significantly. Many US M113's have been exported as well. In foreign service M113's have often been upgraded with various armor kits and weapon stations not found in US service.

Variants

M113

The M113 is an armored personnel carrier and serves as the baseline vehicle of the M113 family. There are four major versions of the M113 plus a wide variety of vehicles in foreign service with a myriad of upgrades. Other vehicles in the M113 family have a different designation by the A suffix denotes the same upgrades as the baseline M113.

M113: Original M113 model with petrol engine introduced in 1960.
M113A1: Improved M113 with diesel engine introduced in 1964.
M113A2: M113A1 with cooling and suspension improvements and smoke grenade launchers on the glacis plate. Introduced in 1979.
M113A3: M113A2 with enhanced battlefield survivability introduced in 1987. Improvements include external fuel tanks, spall liners, steering yoke and more powerful engine. Easily identified by the large fuel tanks on each side of the rear ramp.

TypeArmored personnel carrier
Crew2 + 11 (driver, gunner, 11 troops)
Length4.86 m
Width2.69 m
Height2.50 m (over MG)
Ground clearance0.41 m
Weight10.4 t combat load
Ground pressure0.51 kg/cm2
WheelbaseTracked chassis, 5 roadwheels, drive sprocket front, idler rear, 2.16 m thread, 0.38 m width, 2.67 m length
Turn radius7.9 m
EngineChrysler 75M 8-cylinder petrol, 215 hp at 4.000 rpm
Power ratio20.7 hp/t
TransmissionTX-200-2A, 4 forward, 1 reverse
Speed64 km/h on road, 6 km/h in water
Fuel300 L
Range320 km on road
Wall0.6 m
Trench1.7 m
Gradient60% gradient, 30% slope
FordingAmphibious
ArmorAluminum, 38 - 45 mm
NBC equipmentYes
Night visionYes, IR for driver
SmokeNo
Remarks-
Armament12.7mm M2HB heavy machine gun
Weapon112.7mm M2HB heavy machine gun on pintle mount
2.000 rounds, 100 ready to fire
manual traverse and elevation
non-stabilized
Weapon2-
Weapon3-
Weapon4-
Weapon5-
Weapon6-
TypeArmored personnel carrier
Crew2 + 11 (driver, gunner, 11 troops)
Length4.86 m
Width2.69 m
Height2.50 m (over MG)
Ground clearance0.41 m
Weight10.9 t combat load
Ground pressure0.53 kg/cm2
WheelbaseTracked chassis, 5 roadwheels, drive sprocket front, idler rear, 2.16 m thread, 0.38 m width, 2.67 m length
Turn radius7.9 m
EngineDetroit Diesel 6V-53 6-cylinder diesel, 212 hp at 2.800 rpm
Power ratio19.4 hp/t
TransmissionTX-100-1, 3 forward, 1 reverse
Speed61 km/h on road, 6 km/h in water
Fuel360 L
Range480 km on road
Wall0.6 m
Trench1.7 m
Gradient60% gradient, 30% slope
FordingAmphibious
ArmorAluminum, 38 - 45 mm
NBC equipmentYes
Night visionYes, IR for driver
SmokeNo
Remarks-
Armament12.7mm M2HB heavy machine gun
Weapon112.7mm M2HB heavy machine gun on pintle mount
2.000 rounds, 100 ready to fire
manual traverse and elevation
non-stabilized
Weapon2-
Weapon3-
Weapon4-
Weapon5-
Weapon6-
TypeArmored personnel carrier
Crew2 + 11 (driver, gunner, 11 troops)
Length4.86 m
Width2.69 m
Height2.52 m (over MG)
Ground clearance0.43 m
Weight11.3 t combat load
Ground pressure0.55 kg/cm2
WheelbaseTracked chassis, 5 roadwheels, drive sprocket front, idler rear, 2.16 m thread, 0.38 m width, 2.67 m length
Turn radius7.9 m
EngineDetroit Diesel 6V-53 6-cylinder diesel, 212 hp at 2.800 rpm
Power ratio18.7 hp/t
TransmissionTX-100-1, 3 forward, 1 reverse
Speed61 km/h on road, 6 km/h in water
Fuel360 L
Range480 km on road
Wall0.6 m
Trench1.7 m
Gradient60% gradient, 30% slope
FordingAmphibious
ArmorAluminum, 38 - 45 mm
NBC equipmentYes
Night visionYes, IR for driver
SmokeNo
Remarks-
Armament12.7mm M2HB heavy machine gun
Weapon112.7mm M2HB heavy machine gun on pintle mount
2.000 rounds, 100 ready to fire
manual traverse and elevation
non-stabilized
Weapon2-
Weapon3-
Weapon4-
Weapon5-
Weapon6-
TypeArmored personnel carrier
Crew2 + 11 (driver, gunner, 11 troops)
Length5.30 m
Width2.69 m
Height2.52 m (over MG)
Ground clearance0.43 m
Weight12.3 t combat load
Ground pressure0.60 kg/cm2
WheelbaseTracked chassis, 5 roadwheels, drive sprocket front, idler rear, 2.16 m thread, 0.38 m width, 2.67 m length
Turn radiuspivot
EngineDetroit Diesel 6V-53T 6-cylinder turbo diesel, 275 hp at 2.800 rpm
Power ratio22.4 hp/t
TransmissionX-200-4 or X-200-4A, 4 forward, 2 reverse
Speed66 km/h on road, 6 km/h in water
Fuel360 L
Range480 km on road
Wall0.6 m
Trench1.7 m
Gradient60% gradient, 30% slope
FordingAmphibious
ArmorAluminum, 38 - 45 mm
NBC equipmentYes
Night visionYes, IR for driver
SmokeNo
Remarks-
Armament12.7mm M2HB heavy machine gun
Weapon112.7mm M2HB heavy machine gun on pintle mount
2.000 rounds, 100 ready to fire
manual traverse and elevation
non-stabilized
Weapon2-
Weapon3-
Weapon4-
Weapon5-
Weapon6-

M113 ACAV

During the Vietnam war the ARVN improved its M113's with additional protection for the main turret and additional machine guns. The US army adopted this idea and developed the ACAV kit, which stands for Armored Cavalry Assault Vehicle. The ACAV kit adds all round protection for the existing M2HB position and adds two 7.62mm M60 machine guns with gun shields. Both the M113 and M113A1 were fitted with the ACAV kit, but since the Vietnam war the M60 mounts have no longer been used.

TypeArmored personnel carrier
Crew2 + 11 (driver, gunner, 11 troops)
Length4.86 m
Width2.69 m
Height2.50 m (over MG)
Ground clearance0.41 m
Weight10.9 t combat load
Ground pressure0.53 kg/cm2
WheelbaseTracked chassis, 5 roadwheels, drive sprocket front, idler rear, 2.16 m thread, 0.38 m width, 2.67 m length
Turn radius7.9 m
EngineChrysler 75M 8-cylinder petrol, 215 hp at 4.000 rpm
Power ratio20.7 hp/t
TransmissionTX-200-2A, 4 forward, 1 reverse
Speed61 km/h on road, 6 km/h in water
Fuel300 L
Range320 km on road
Wall0.6 m
Trench1.7 m
Gradient60% gradient, 30% slope
FordingAmphibious
ArmorAluminum, 38 - 45 mm
NBC equipmentYes
Night visionYes, IR for driver
SmokeNo
Remarks-
Armament12.7mm M2HB heavy machine gun
7.62mm M60 machine gun (2x)
Weapon112.7mm M2HB heavy machine gun on pintle mount
2.000 rounds, 100 ready to fire
manual traverse and elevation
non-stabilized
Weapon22x 7.62mm M60 machine gun on pintle mount
100 rounds ready to fire
manual traverse and elevation
non-stabilized
Weapon3-
Weapon4-
Weapon5-
Weapon6-

M577

The M577 is an armored command post based on the M113 chassis. It has a higher roof line and is fitted with radio's, map table and generator. A tent can be erected behind the vehicle to increase the available space.

M577: M577 based on original M113 chassis.
M577A1: M577 based on M113A1 chassis.
M577A2: M577 based on M113A2 chassis.
M577A3: M577 based on M113A3 chassis. Has the new engine and transmission but no external fuel drums.
M1068: Standard Integrated Command Post System based M113A2 chassis.
M1068A3: Standard Integrated Command Post System based M113A3 chassis.

TypeCommand vehicle
Crew5 (driver, commander, 3 operators)
Length4.86 m
Width2.69 m
Height2.68 m (overall)
Ground clearance0.41 m
Weight10.8 t combat load
Ground pressure0.53 kg/cm2
WheelbaseTracked chassis, 5 roadwheels, drive sprocket front, idler rear, 2.16 m thread, 0.38 m width, 2.67 m length
Turn radius7.9 m
EngineChrysler 75M 8-cylinder petrol, 215 hp at 4.000 rpm
Power ratio19.8 hp/t
TransmissionTX-200-2A, 4 forward, 1 reverse
Speed64 km/h on road, 6 km/h in water
Fuel450 L
Range430 km on road
Wall0.6 m
Trench1.7 m
Gradient60% gradient, 30% slope
FordingAmphibious
ArmorAluminium, 38 - 45 mm
NBC equipmentYes
Night visionYes, IR for driver
SmokeNo
Remarks-
Armament-
Weapon1-
Weapon2-
Weapon3-
Weapon4-
Weapon5-
Weapon6-
TypeCommand vehicle
Crew5 (driver, commander, 3 operators)
Length4.86 m
Width2.69 m
Height2.71 m (overall)
Ground clearance0.43 m
Weight11.1 t combat load
Ground pressure0.55 kg/cm2
WheelbaseTracked chassis, 5 roadwheels, drive sprocket front, idler rear, 2.16 m thread, 0.38 m width, 2.67 m length
Turn radius7.9 m
EngineDetroit Diesel 6V-53 6-cylinder diesel, 212 hp at 2.800 rpm
Power ratio21.1 hp/t
TransmissionTX-100-1, 3 forward, 1 reverse
Speed61 km/h on road, 6 km/h in water
Fuel450 L
Range600 km on road
Wall0.6 m
Trench1.7 m
Gradient60% gradient, 30% slope
FordingAmphibious
ArmorAluminium, 38 - 45 mm
NBC equipmentYes
Night visionYes, IR for driver
SmokeNo
Remarks-
Armament-
Weapon1-
Weapon2-
Weapon3-
Weapon4-
Weapon5-
Weapon6-
TypeCommand vehicle
Crew5 (driver, commander, 3 operators)
Length4.86 m
Width2.69 m
Height2.71 m (overall)
Ground clearance0.43 m
Weight11.5 t combat load
Ground pressure0.57 kg/cm2
WheelbaseTracked chassis, 5 roadwheels, drive sprocket front, idler rear, 2.16 m thread, 0.38 m width, 2.67 m length
Turn radius7.9 m
EngineDetroit Diesel 6V-53 6-cylinder diesel, 212 hp at 2.800 rpm
Power ratio20.1 hp/t
TransmissionTX-100-1, 3 forward, 1 reverse
Speed61 km/h on road, 6 km/h in water
Fuel450 L
Range600 km on road
Wall0.6 m
Trench1.7 m
Gradient60% gradient, 30% slope
FordingAmphibious
ArmorAluminium, 38 - 45 mm
NBC equipmentYes
Night visionYes, IR for driver
SmokeNo
Remarks-
Armament-
Weapon1-
Weapon2-
Weapon3-
Weapon4-
Weapon5-
Weapon6-
TypeCommand vehicle
Crew5 (driver, commander, 3 operators)
Length4.86 m
Width2.69 m
Height2.71 m (overall)
Ground clearance0.43 m
Weight12.5 t combat load
Ground pressure0.61 kg/cm2
WheelbaseTracked chassis, 5 roadwheels, drive sprocket front, idler rear, 2.16 m thread, 0.38 m width, 2.67 m length
Turn radiuspivot
EngineDetroit Diesel 6V-53T 6-cylinder turbo diesel, 275 hp at 2.800 rpm
Power ratio21.9 hp/t
TransmissionX-200-4 or X-200-4A, 4 forward, 2 reverse
Speed66 km/h on road, 6 km/h in water
Fuel450 L
Range600 km on road
Wall0.6 m
Trench1.7 m
Gradient60% gradient, 30% slope
FordingAmphibious
ArmorAluminium, 38 - 45 mm
NBC equipmentYes
Night visionYes, IR for driver
SmokeNo
Remarks-
Armament-
Weapon1-
Weapon2-
Weapon3-
Weapon4-
Weapon5-
Weapon6-
TypeCommand vehicle
Crew4 (driver, commander, 2 operators)
Length5.13 m
Width2.69 m
Height2.71 m (overall)
Ground clearance0.43 m
Weight11.3 t combat load
Ground pressure0.56 kg/cm2
WheelbaseTracked chassis, 5 roadwheels, drive sprocket front, idler rear, 2.16 m thread, 0.38 m width, 2.67 m length
Turn radius7.9 m
EngineDetroit Diesel 6V-53 6-cylinder diesel, 212 hp at 2.800 rpm
Power ratio18.7 hp/t
TransmissionTX-100-1, 3 forward, 1 reverse
Speed61 km/h on road, 6 km/h in water
Fuel450 L
Range600 km on road
Wall0.6 m
Trench1.7 m
Gradient60% gradient, 30% slope
FordingAmphibious
ArmorAluminium, 38 - 45 mm
NBC equipmentYes
Night visionYes, IR for driver
SmokeNo
Remarks-
Armament-
Weapon1-
Weapon2-
Weapon3-
Weapon4-
Weapon5-
Weapon6-
TypeCommand vehicle
Crew4 (driver, commander, 2 operators)
Length5.13 m
Width2.69 m
Height2.71 m (overall)
Ground clearance0.43 m
Weight12.3 t combat load
Ground pressure0.60 kg/cm2
WheelbaseTracked chassis, 5 roadwheels, drive sprocket front, idler rear, 2.16 m thread, 0.38 m width, 2.67 m length
Turn radiuspivot
EngineDetroit Diesel 6V-53T 6-cylinder turbo diesel, 275 hp at 2.800 rpm
Power ratio22.3 hp/t
TransmissionX-200-4 or X-200-4A, 4 forward, 2 reverse
Speed66 km/h on road, 6 km/h in water
Fuel450 L
Range600 km on road
Wall0.6 m
Trench1.7 m
Gradient60% gradient, 30% slope
FordingAmphibious
ArmorAluminium, 38 - 45 mm
NBC equipmentYes
Night visionYes, IR for driver
SmokeNo
Remarks-
Armament-
Weapon1-
Weapon2-
Weapon3-
Weapon4-
Weapon5-
Weapon6-

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