Artillery / Towed guns / D-20

D-20

General Facts

  • TYPE
    Towed howitzer

  • ORIGIN
    USSR

  • NICKNAMES
    M1955 (NATO designation)
    Type 66 (Chinese production)
    Model 1981 (Romanian production)
    155 H55 (Finnish service)

  • DESIGNED
    Late 1940's

  • DESIGNER
    F.F. Petrov design bureau

  • PRODUCTION
    Early 1950's - ?

  • PRODUCERS
    China
    Romania
    USSR

  • QUANTITY
    At least 3.000 produced

  • UNIT COST
    Unknown

  • CHARACTERISTICS
    Good rate of fire
    Rugged and reliable
    Lighter than ML-20
    Limited range for todays standards

Introduction

The D-20 is a towed howitzer of Soviet origin. It was developed in the early 1950's to replace most 152mm howitzer in Soviet service. It has been produced under license in China and Romania. The ordnance is similar to the one used in the 2S3 Akatsiya self-propelled howitzer.

Layout

The D-20 uses the same two wheel split trail carriage as the contemporary D-74. Instead of a 122mm howitzer a shorter and larger caliber 152mm ordnance is fitted. A shield gives the crew of 10 some protection from small arms fire over the frontal arc.

Firepower

The D-20 fires powerful 152mm shells from its 34-caliber ordnance with double baffle muzzle brake. A maximum range of 17.4 km can be achieved. The maximum rate of fire is 5 to 6 rpm and sustained fire is 2 to 4 rpm.

Mobility

The D-20 is normally towed by 6x6 truck. In Soviet service the Ural 375D 6x6 truck and AT-S artillery tractor were used. The weapon is too heavy to be manhandled.

Users

The D-20 was widely used by Soviet and Warsaw Pact forces and has been exported to most nations with ties to the USSR. In Russian service the D-20 was replaced by the towed 2A65 and 2A36 and self-propelled 2S3 Akatsiya. The D-20 remain in widespread service in Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa and the Middle East.

Variants

D-20

Only a single version of the D-20 has been produced. The D-20 can be distinct from the D-74 that uses the same carriage by the shorter and much thicker ordnance. The Type 66 is produced in China and is a direct copy of the D-20.

  • Specifications:
  • D-20
TypeTowed howitzer
Crew10
Ordnance152mm L/34, 5.195 m barrel
Elevation-5 to +63°
Traverse58° total
Rate of fire5 - 6 rpm
Range17.4 km
Carriage2 wheel split trail carriage
Weight5.7 t
Length8.69 m (travelling)
Width2.40 m (travelling)
Height1.93 m (travelling)
Towing vehicle6x6 truck
Speed60 km/h on roads, 15 km/h cross country
RemarksGun shield

M1981

The M1981 is the Romanian production variant of the D-20. It differs in various small details from the D-20. The M1985 is an M1981 with a much longer barrel and associated increased range.

TypeTowed howitzer
Crew?
Ordnance152mm L/47, 7.105 m barrel, 48 grooves
Elevation-5 to +57°
Traverse50° total
Rate of fire2 - 4 rpm
Range17.4 km (standard ammunition), 24.0 km (new range of ammunition)
Carriage2 wheel split trail carriage, 0.35 m ground clearance
Weight7.5 t
Length11.70 m (travelling)
Width2.53 m (travelling)
Height?
Towing vehicle6x6 truck
Speed?
RemarksGun shield

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