Artillery / Towed guns / D-30

D-30

General Facts

  • TYPE
    Towed howitzer

  • ORIGIN
    USSR

  • NICKNAMES
    2A18 (industrial index)

    Foreign production:
    Type 96 (China)
    HR M94 (Croatia)
    D-30-M (Egyp)
    D-301 Shafie / HM-40 (Iran)
    D-30J Saddam (Iraq)
    D-30J (Serbia / Yugoslavia)

    Foreign service:
    122 H 63 (Finland) Khalifa (Sudan)

  • DESIGNED
    Late 1950's

  • DESIGNER
    F.F. Petrov design bureau

  • PRODUCTION
    Early 1960's - present

  • PRODUCERS
    China - Norinco
    Croatia - RH Alan
    Egypt - Abu Zaabal
    Iran - DIO
    Iraq
    North Korea
    Russia - Spetstehnika
    Serbia - Yugoimport
    USSR - Spetsthenika

  • QUANTITY
    Unknown

  • UNIT COST
    Unknown

  • CHARACTERISTICS
    Limited size and weight
    Good rate of fire
    Moderate range

Introduction

The D-30 is a towed howitzer of Soviet origin. It was developed in the late 1950's to replace the older M-30 which had been in service throughout World War 2. The D-30 is a much more capable design than the M-30 and has a much better performance even though it uses the same type of ammunition. The D-30 is the most numerous piece of artillery in service in the world. It was produced in large quantities and has been produced under license in various nations.

Layout

The D-30 has a unique layout since it uses a three leg chassis that serves as a stable firing platform that allows the ordnance to traverse a full 360 degrees. The ordnance has its recoil system mounted above the barrel and has a multislotted muzzle brake. A gun shields provides some protection over the frontal arc for the crew of 7. In the firing position the wheels are raised of the ground and located on each side of the gun shield.

Firepower

The D-30 fires the 122mm shells that are also used in the older M-30, but new types have been developed as well. The maximum rate of fire is 7 to 8 rounds per minute and 75 rounds may be fires in the first hour. The maximum range is 15.4 km with standard HE-Frag shells. A Chinese rocket assisted round is capable of reaching 21.9 km.

Mobility

The D-30 is often towed by a 6x6 truck such as the Ural 375D. The truck will normally also carry the crew and some of the 80 rounds that are usually available per gun. In the travelling position the three legs and ordnance are rotated in the same position and the D-30 is towed by a hook attached to the muzzle. This makes the truck and gun combination rather compact and very stable to tow at speeds up to 80 km/h.

Users

The D-30 was acquired in large quantities by the USSR and was widely exported to Warsaw Pact nations and Soviet allies in Asia, Africa and the Middle East. In many nations the D-30 is the standard piece of artillery. As such it has been used during most Eastern European, African and Middle Eastern conflicts since the 1960's. The D-30 is expected to remain in active service for many years to come.

Variants

D-30

The D-30 has been produced in several versions, all of which have a similar performance and look alike.
D-30: Original D-30 with 2A18 ordnance with multislotted muzzle brake.
D-30A: Improved D-30 new cradle, improved recoil system and 2A18M ordnance with double baffle muzzle brake. Sometimes called D-30M.
Type 96: Chinese production version similar to original D-30. Sometimes known as Type 86.
D-30-M: Egyptian production version of original D-30.
D-30J: Yugoslav production variant with double baffle muzzle brake and hydraulic rammer for increased rate of fire.
Saddam: Iraqi production version of the D-30J.

TypeTowed howitzer
Crew7
Ordnance122mm L/40 2A18 howitzer, 4.875 m barrel
Elevation-7 to +70°
Traverse360°
Rate of fire7 - 8 rpm, 75 rounds in first hour
Range15.4 km (standard rounds)
Carriage2 wheel carriage with three legs, 1.85 m track
Weight3.15 t (firing position), 3.21 t (travelling)
Length5.4 m (travelling)
Width1.95 m (travelling)
Height1.66 m (travelling)
Towing vehicle6x6 truck
Speed80 km/ on roads
RemarksGun shield
TypeTowed howitzer
Crew7
Ordnance122mm L/40 2A18M howitzer
Elevation-7 to +70°
Traverse360°
Rate of fire6 - 8 rpm, 75 rounds in first hour
Range15.3 km (standard rounds)
Carriage2 wheel carriage with three legs, 1.85 m track
Weight?
Length5.4 m (travelling)
Width2.2 m (travelling)
Height1.8 m (travelling)
Towing vehicle6x6 truck
Speed80 km/ on roads
RemarksGun shield
TypeTowed howitzer
Crew?
Ordnance122mm L/40 howitzer, 4.785 m barrel
Elevation-7 to +70°
Traverse360°
Rate of fire6 - 8 rpm
Range15.3 km (standard rounds), 17.3 km (base bleed)
Carriage2 wheel carriage with three legs, 1.86 m track
Weight3.35 t (firing position), 3.44 t (travelling)
Length5.33 m (travelling)
Width1.95 m (travelling)
Height1.66 m (travelling)
Towing vehicle6x6 truck
Speed60 km/ on roads
RemarksGun shield

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