Artillery / Self-propelled howitzers / M110

M110

General Facts

  • TYPE
    Self-propelled howitzer

  • ORIGIN
    United States

  • NICKNAMES
    Romach (M107 in Israeli service)
    T120 (development designation of M578)
    T235 (development designation of M107)
    T236 (development designation of M110)

  • DESIGNED
    1956 - late 1950's

  • DESIGNER
    Pacific Car and Foundry Company

  • PRODUCTION
    1962 - late 1960's (M107, M110, M578)
    1971 - 1983 (M578)

  • PRODUCERS
    United States - BMY
    United States - FMC Corporation
    United States - Pacific Car and Foundry Company

  • QUANTITY
    1.844 M578

  • UNIT COST
    Unknown

  • CHARACTERISTICS
    Long range
    Heavy shells
    Better mobility than towed guns
    Exposed crew
    Limited rate of fire
    Average mobility

Introduction

The M110 is a self-propelled howitzer of US origin. In the 1950’s the US Army required new heavy artillery for long range shelling and destruction of vital enemy positions. The new systems were to be mobile, be air transportable, use common parts and be quick in and out of action. A self propelled gun carriage would meet these requirements better than towed artillery. The Pacific Car and Foundry Company came up with a chassis that allowed for interchangeable 155mm, 175mm and 203mm cannon. Prototypes were developed as the T245, T235 and T236. After series of tests and design changes the T235 was accepted for US service as the M107 and the T236 as the M110 in 1961. With most armies the M110 was replaced with the MLRS, but many remained in US service for their nuclear capabilities.

Layout

The M107 and M110 both use the same chassis. The tracked chassis is made out of steel. The driver is seated on the left with the engine to his right. The armament is fitted to a large turntable with a limited traverse and a large spade is fitted at the rear to stabilize the vehicle during operation. The M107 is fitted with the very long 175mm M113 gun, while the M110 is fitted with the short 203mm M2A2 gun. Besides the driver the gun is operated by 12 other people. Of these 5 are carried on the weapon and the rest by the track M548 cargo carrier that also carries additional ammunition. Most M107 and M110 have been upgraded to the M110A2 standard.

Firepower

The M107 has a range of 32.7 km with standard ammunition and was the longest ranging piece of artillery at the time of production. The M110 with its short barrel had a very limited 16.8 km range, requiring it to be closer to the front line and operate within the reach of enemy artillery. The M110A2 has a much improved range of up to 30 km. Due to the size and weight of their ammunition both systems have a low rate of fire and require a lot of crew to operate the weapon.

Protection

During travelling and in the firing position all members of the crew except for the driver are out in the open. This means that they are not protected from direct fire, shell splinters and NBC threats.

Mobility

Compared to a towed gun of similar proportions the M107 and M110 are very quickly in and out of action. While being tracked vehicles they are also much more mobile than most towed artillery. Both models are fitted with the Detroit Diesel 8V71T 405 hp diesel engine.

Users

The main user of the M107 and M110 was the United States. Both models were actively used in Vietnam. The M110 also saw operational use with UK and US forces during the First Gulf War. The M107 and M110 were also widely exported, mainly to Europe, the Middle East and Asia.

Variants

M107

M107: The M107 is a self propelled howitzer that is based on the same chassis as the M110. The M107 features a very long 175mm M113 gun giving it a longer range than any US or Soviet piece of tube artillery at the time of development. The M107 was meant for long range shelling of targets behind enemy lines. With most NATO forces the M107 was refitted to M110A2 standard. This refitting improved ammunition logistics due to the move to a single caliber, while retaining the long range fire capability.

  • Specifications:
  • M107
TypeSelf-propelled howitzer
Crew13 of which 5 on gun
Length5.72 m (hull), 11.26 m (gun forward)
Width3.15 m
Height1.48 m (hull), 2.81 m (top of mount)
Ground clearance0.47 m
Weight25.9 t unloaded, 28.2 t combat load
Ground pressure0.81 kg/cm2
WheelbaseTracked chassis, 5 roadwheels, drive sprocket front, 3.94 m length, 0.46 m width, 2.69 m track
Turn radius?
EngineDetroit Diesel 8V71T turbo diesel, 405 hp at 2.300 rpm
Power ratio14.4 hp/t
TransmissionAllison XTG-411-2A cross-drive, 4 forward, 2 reverse
Speed56 km/h
Fuel1.137 L
Range725 km
Wall1.0 m
Trench2.4 m
Gradient60% gradient, 30% slope
Fording1.1 m
ArmorSteel
NBC equipmentNo
Night visionYes
SmokeNo
Remarks-
Armament175mm M113 howitzer
Weapon1175mm M113 howitzer
2 rounds, all ready to fire
-2 to +65° elevation, 6°/s powered
-30 to +30° traverse, 6°/s powered
non-stabilized
Weapon2-
Weapon3-
Weapon4-
Weapon5-
Weapon6-

M110

M110: The M110 is the original 203mm howitzer of the M110 family. The M110 uses the same hull as the M107 and is fitted with a short barreled 203mm M2A2 howitzer. Most M110 have been converted to M110A2 standard.

  • Specifications:
  • M110
TypeSelf-propelled howitzer
Crew13 of which 5 on gun
Length5.72 m (hull), 7.47 m (gun forward)
Width3.15 m
Height1.48 m (hull), 2.81 m (top of mount)
Ground clearance0.47 m
Weight24.3 t unloaded, 26.5 t combat load
Ground pressure0.76 kg/cm2
WheelbaseTracked chassis, 5 roadwheels, drive sprocket front, 3.94 m length, 0.46 m width, 2.69 m track
Turn radius?
EngineDetroit Diesel 8V71T turbo diesel, 405 hp at 2.300 rpm
Power ratio15.3 hp/t
TransmissionAllison XTG-411-2A cross-drive, 4 forward, 2 reverse
Speed56 km/h
Fuel1.137 L
Range725 km
Wall1.0 m
Trench2.4 m
Gradient60% gradient, 30% slope
Fording1.1 m
ArmorSteel
NBC equipmentNo
Night visionYes
SmokeNo
Remarks-
Armament203mm M2A2 howitzer
Weapon1203mm M2A2 howitzer
2 rounds, all ready to fire
-2 to +65° elevation, 6°/s powered
-30 to +30° traverse, 6°/s powered
non-stabilized
Weapon2-
Weapon3-
Weapon4-
Weapon5-
Weapon6-

M110A2

M110A1: Both the short 203mm barreled M110 and 175mm M107 were replaced in US service by the M110A1. The M110A1 features a much longer 203mm M201 barrel combining the range of the M107 with the punch of the M110.
M110A2: The M110A2 adds a muzzle brake to the barrel of the M110A1. All M110A1 were retrofitted to M110A2 standard.

TypeSelf-propelled howitzer
Crew13 of which 5 on gun
Length5.72 m (hull), 10.73 m (gun forward)
Width3.15 m
Height1.47 m (hull), 2.74 m (top of mount)
Ground clearance0.39 m
Weight25.5 t unloaded, 28.4 t combat load
Ground pressure0.81 kg/cm2
WheelbaseTracked chassis, 5 roadwheels, drive sprocket front, 3.94 m length, 0.46 m width, 2.69 m track
Turn radius?
EngineDetroit Diesel 8V71T turbo diesel, 405 hp at 2.300 rpm
Power ratio14.3 hp/t
TransmissionAllison XTG-411-2A cross-drive, 4 forward, 2 reverse
Speed55 km/h
Fuel984 L
Range523 km
Wall1.0 m
Trench1.9 m
Gradient60% gradient, 30% slope
Fording1.1 m
ArmorSteel
NBC equipmentNo
Night visionYes
SmokeNo
Remarks-
Armament203mm M201 howitzer
Weapon1203mm M201 howitzer
2 rounds, all ready to fire
-2 to +65° elevation, 6°/s powered
-30 to +30° traverse, 6°/s powered
non-stabilized
Weapon2-
Weapon3-
Weapon4-
Weapon5-
Weapon6-

M578

M578: The M578 is an armored recovery vehicle that is based on the chassis of the M110 self propelled howitzer. The medium weight chassis allowed for a medium weight recovery vehicle while at the same time there was commonality of parts with the M107 and M110. The turret is equipped with a crane and a 27 t and 7 t winch are fitted.

  • Specifications:
  • M578
TypeArmored recovery vehicle
Crew3 (commander, driver, operator)
Length5.59 m (hull), 6.43 m (overall)
Width3.15 m
Height2.91 m (top of cupola), 3.42 m (with MG)
Ground clearance0.44 m
Weight20.4 t unloaded, 24.3 t combat load
Ground pressure0.7 kg/cm2
WheelbaseTracked chassis, 5 roadwheels, drive sprocket front, 3.76 m length, 0.46 m width, 2.69 m track
Turn radius?
EngineDetroit Diesel 8V71T turbo diesel, 405 hp at 2.300 rpm
Power ratio16.7 hp/t
TransmissionAllison XTG-411-2A cross-drive, 4 forward, 2 reverse
Speed54 km/h
Fuel1.137 L
Range725 km
Wall1.0 m
Trench2.4 m
Gradient60% gradient
Fording1.1 m
ArmorSteel
NBC equipmentOptional
Night visionYes
SmokeNo
Remarkscrane, 27 t winch, 7 t winch
Armament12.7mm M2HB heavy machine gun
Weapon112.7mm M2HB heavy machine gun on roof
500 rounds, 100 ready to fire
manual traverse and elevation
non-stabilized
Weapon2-
Weapon3-
Weapon4-
Weapon5-
Weapon6-

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