SAU-122 (Russian designation)
M1974 (NATO designation)
2S1 Go?dzik (Polish designation)
1967 - 1972
KhTZ (Kharkov Tractor Plant)
1972 - 1991
Over 10.000 produced
- UNIT COST
No secondary armament
Limited space inside
The 2S1 Gvozdika is a tracked 122mm self-propelled howitzer of Russian origin. It was developed in the late 1960's and entered large scale production in 1971. 2S1 was the GRAU designation for the new weapon system. In service the name Gvozdika, carnation in English, is most common. In the West it was known as the M1974, based on the year it was first observed by the West.
The 2S1 has a conventional layout with the engine in the front and the turret at the rear. The crew of four consists of a commander, driver, gunner and loader. The driver is seated on the left of the engine with the rest of the crew seated in the turret. The chassis is a modified version of the MT-LB. It is somewhat higher and longer and features an additional road wheel.
The 2S1 is fitted with the 2A31 howitzer, which is an adaptation of the ordnance of the towed D-30 howitzer. The short 122mm ordnance allows normal shells to be fired up to 15.3 km. Rocket assisted shells can be fired up to 21.9 km. A total of 40 rounds can be carried. Normally rounds from outside the vehicle would be used as only 16 rounds are directly accessible from the inside and outside there is more room for fusing the rounds. The 2S1 is not fitted with any secondary armament.
The 2S1 can be operated under full armor protection. The steel hull protects the crew from small arms fire and shell splinters. An NBC system is standard, but no smoke grenades are fitted.
The 2S1 is fitted with a 300 hp V8 diesel engine coupled to a manual transmission. The 2S1 is fully amphibious and uses its tracks to propel it in the water.
The 2S1 was widely adopted by Soviet states and its allies around the world. It was issued 36 units per artillery and motorized infantry division and 72 per tank division. Over 10.000 units were built until production ceased with the fall of the iron curtain. Production also took place in Bulgaria and Poland. Currently the 2S1 can still be found in use by many nations. Those who have the financial means are replacing the 2S1 with more modern self-propelled howitzers.
The 2S1 is an amphibious self-propelled howitzer with a 122mm gun in a fully enclosed turret. The 2S1 is essentially a modified MT-LB hull with the ordnance of the towed D-30 cannon. There are no variants of the 2S1. The modified MT-LB chassis has also been used for other applications.
- 2S1 Gvozdika
|Crew||4 (commander, driver, gunner, loader)|
|Height||2.29 m (turret roof), 2.73 m (overall)|
|Ground clearance||0.40 m|
|Weight||15.7 t combat load|
|Ground pressure||0.49 kg/cm2|
|Wheelbase||Tracked chassis, 7 roadwheels, drive sprocket front, idler rear, 0.40 m width|
|Engine||YaMZ-238N V8 diesel, 300 hp|
|Power ratio||19.1 hp/t|
|Transmission||Manual, 5 forward, 1 reverse|
|Speed||62 km/h on road, 5 km/h in water|
|Gradient||77% gradient, 55% slope|
|Armor||Steel, up to 20 mm|
|Armament||122mm 2A31 howitzer|
|Weapon1||122mm 2A31 howitzer|
40 rounds, 16 ready to fire
-3 to +70 degrees elevation, powered
360 degrees traverse, powered, non-stabilized