Artillery / Multiple rocket launchers / BM-14

BM-14

General Facts

  • TYPE
    Multiple rocket launcher

  • ORIGIN
    USSR

  • NICKNAMES
    2B2 (nickname for BM-14M)
    2B2R (nickname for BM-14MM)
    8U35 (nickname for BM-14-17)
    8U38 (nickname for RPU-14)
    WP-8 (Polish production RPU-14)

  • DESIGNED
    Late 1940's

  • DESIGNER
    Unknown

  • PRODUCTION
    1952 - late 1960's

  • PRODUCERS
    Poland
    USSR

  • QUANTITY
    Unknown

  • UNIT COST
    Unknown

  • CHARACTERISTICS
    Better range and firepower than BM-13
    Low cost and complexity
    Reasonable mobility
    Limited range and accuracy
    Lacks any kind of protection

Introduction

The BM-14 is a series of multiple rocket launchers of Soviet origin. The BM-14 was developed in the late 1940's to replace the famous BM-13 and its design was partly inspired by the German Nebelwerfer.

Layout

The BM-14 is a conventional design, usually consisting of two rows of eight launch tubes. Aiming is done with an indirect fire sight attached to the launcher. The rockets feature solid propellant, are spin stabilized and do not feature wings. Several types of warheads are available.

Firepower

All BM-14 launchers feature 16 or 17 launch tubes for the same family of 140mm M-140 rockets. They can be ripple fired in 10 seconds and have a range of 9.5 km. The accuracy is limited due to the lack of wings. The warhead types include HE-Frag, smoke and chemical.

Protection

All BM-14 launchers do not feature any protection from direct and indirect fire or NBC threats. The launcher is operated, fired and reloaded outside the vehicle.

Mobility

The BM-14 launcher has been fitted to four types of 4x4 and 6x6 military trucks, providing it with good mobility on roads and reasonable mobility in the field. The RPU-14 is a towed version which is usually towed by jeeps or light trucks. It can also be manhandled over short distances in the field.

Users

The BM-14 was adopted by Soviet forces, various Warsaw Pact nations and many Soviet allies in Africa, Asia and the Middle East. They have been used in various conflicts, but most have been replaced by the later and more capable BM-21 Grad. Nowadays the BM-14 is considered obsolete and hardly any remain in service.

Variants

BM-14-16

BM-14-16: Original version with 16 launch tubes on Zil-151 6x6 truck. Introduced in 1952.
BM-14M: Improved BM-14-16 based on Zil-157 6x6 truck. Introduced in 1958.
BM-14MM: A 16 round launcher mounted on a Zil-131 6x6 chassis. Introduced in 1959.

TypeMultiple rocket launcher
Crew7
Length6.92 m
Width2.3 m
Height3.17 m
Ground clearance0.27 m
Weight8.4 t combat load
Ground pressure?
WheelbaseWheeled chassis, 6x6, 8.25 x20 tires, 3.67 + 1.22 m wheelbase, 1.6 m track
Turn radius?
EngineZIL-121 6-cylinder petrol, 92 hp
Power ratio11.0 hp/t
TransmissionManual, 5 forward, 1 reverse
Speed60 km/h
Fuel300 L
Range600 km
Wall0.6 m
Trench0.7 m
Gradient50% gradient
Fording0.8 m
ArmorNo
NBC equipmentNo
Night visionNo
SmokeNo
Remarks-
Armament140mm BM-14 rocket launcher (16x)
Weapon1140mm BM-14 16-round rocket launcher
16 rounds, all ready to fire
0 to +52° elevation
140° left and 60° right traverse
non-stabilized
Weapon2-
Weapon3-
Weapon4-
Weapon5-
Weapon6-

BM-14-17

BM-14-17: A 17 round launcher mounted on a GAZ-69A 4x4 truck. Introduced in 1959.
BM-14-17M: A 17 round launcher mounted on a GAZ-66 4x4 truck.

TypeMultiple rocket launcher
Crew6
Length5.41 m
Width1.99 m
Height2.25 m
Ground clearance0.27 m
Weight4.6 t combat load
Ground pressure?
WheelbaseWheeled chassis, 4x4, 10.00 x18 tires, 3.3 m wheelbase, 1.6 m track
Turn radius?
EngineGAZ-51A 6-cylinder petrol, 70 hp at 2.800 rpm
Power ratio15.3 hp/t
TransmissionManual, 4 forward, 1 reverse
Speed65 km/h
Fuel195 L
Range650 km
Wall0.5 m
Trench?
Gradient50% gradient
Fording0.8 m
ArmorNo
NBC equipmentNo
Night visionNo
SmokeNo
Remarks-
Armament140mm BM-14 rocket launcher (17x)
Weapon1140mm BM-14 17-round rocket launcher
17 rounds, all ready to fire
0 to +52° elevation
145° left and 65° right traverse
non-stabilized
Weapon2-
Weapon3-
Weapon4-
Weapon5-
Weapon6-

RPU-14 towed launcher

RPU-14: Towed version with 16 launch tubes in a four by four pack mounted on a two wheel chassis.
WP-8: Polish version with 8 launch tubes.

TypeMultiple rocket launcher
Crew5
Ordnance140mm M-14 rocket (16x)
Elevation0 to +48°
Traverse30° total
Rate of fire?
Rangedepends on ammunition
Carriage2 wheel split trail carriage, 6.50 x20 tires, 1.45 m track, 0.32 m ground clearance
Weight1.835 kg (loaded)
Length4.04 m
Width1.8 m
Height1.6 m
Towing vehicle4x4 light truck
Speed-
Remarks-
TypeMultiple rocket launcher
Crew5
Ordnance140mm M-14 rocket (8x)
Elevation-12 to +47°
Traverse28° total
Rate of fire?
Rangedepends on ammunition
Carriage2 wheel split trail carriage, 0.25 m ground clearance
Weight370 kg (empty), 688 kg (loaded)
Length3.29 m
Width1.63 m
Height1.2 m
Towing vehicle4x4 light truck
Speed-
Remarks-

M-140 artillery rockets

M-14OF: Standard M-14 rocket with HE-Frag warhead, introduced in 1952.
M-14D: M-14 rocket with smoke and incendiary warhead, introduced in 1955.
M-14KChR: M-14 rocket with chemical warhead, introduced in 1955.

TypeArtillery rocket
Diameter140 mm body, no wings
Length1.092 m
Weight39.6 kg
GuidanceUnguided, ballistic flight
WarheadHE-Frag, 18.8 kg
PropulsionSolid propellant rocket motor
Speed402 m/s max
Range3.8 km minimum, 9.8 km maximum
Altitude-
Engagement envelope-
Remarks-
TypeArtillery rocket
Diameter140 mm body, no wings
Length1.051 m
Weight40.3 kg
GuidanceUnguided, ballistic flight
WarheadSmoke, 0.3 kg HE plus 3.6 kg white phosphorus
PropulsionSolid propellant rocket motor
Speed402 m/s max
Range3.8 km minimum, 10.1 km maximum
Altitude-
Engagement envelope-
Remarks-
TypeArtillery rocket
Diameter140 mm body, no wings
Length1.050 m
Weight39.1 kg
GuidanceUnguided, ballistic flight
WarheadChemical, 18.3 kg
PropulsionSolid propellant rocket motor
Speed402 m/s max
Range3.8 km minimum, 9.8 km maximum
Altitude-
Engagement envelope-
Remarks-

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