Artillery / Surface to surface missiles / 3K60 Bal

3K60 Bal

General Facts

  • TYPE
    Coastal defense system

  • ORIGIN
    Russia

  • NICKNAMES
    SS-C-6 Sennight (NATO designation)
    Bal-E (export model)

  • DESIGNED
    Mid 1990's to mid 2000's

  • DESIGNER
    Tactical Missiles Corporation

  • PRODUCTION
    Mid 2000's - present

  • PRODUCERS
    Russia - Agat

  • QUANTITY
    Well over 20 launch vehicles produced to date.

  • UNIT COST
    Unknown

  • CHARACTERISTICS
    Limited production cost
    Good all terrain mobility
    Shoot and scoot ability
    Subsonic and short range missiles
    Limited range surface search radar

Introduction

The 3K60 Bal is a modern coastal defense system of Russian origin. It was developed in the 1990's as a possible replacement for the 4K51 Rubezh system and for export sales. The Bal uses the Kh-35 Uran (3M24) subsonic anti-ship missile, which has a roughly similar performance as the American RGM-84 Harpoon and French MM-40 Exocet. Compared to the contemporary Russian 3K55 Bastion system the 3K60 Bal is less capable, but also less complex and much cheaper.

Layout

A Bal battery consists of a command vehicle, two missile launch vehicles and two transloaders. A coastal defense unit usually consists of two batteries. All vehicles are based on the MZKT-7930 8x8 truck chassis. The command vehicle is fitted with a large NBC protected shelter. The launch vehicles carry up to 8 Kh-35 missiles and feature a smaller shelter. The transloaders carry up to 8 missiles and are fitted with a crane.

Firepower

The maximum range of the Kh-35 missile is 120 km. The Kh-35 is a sea skimming missile that flies at Mach 0.8. Since the missile is dependent on radar data the range is limited to the effectiveness of the coastal radar systems. The 145 kg shaped charge high explosive warhead is effective against medium sized naval targets, such as frigates. All 16 missiles may be fired in a single volley against multiple targets in order to saturate the target's air defense.

Targeting

The command center is fitted with a Garpun surface search radar. The Kh-35 missiles use inertial guidance and active radar homing in the terminal phase. The effective range of the missile's radar is about 20 km. Instead of the Bal command center the Monolit-B active and passive over the horizon surface search system can also be used.

Mobility

Since the Bal system is based on the MZKT-7930 8x8 truck chassis it has good all terrain mobility. The combat effectiveness and survivability of the Bal is based on its mobility. It takes less than 10 minutes for the Bal system to be set up for combat operations.

Users

The 3K60 is used by the Russian navy, which operates 4 units with 4 launch vehicles each. The 3K60 has also been exported to several nations.

Variants

3K60 Bal

3K60 Bal: Domestic model of the Bal system used by Russian forces.
Bal-E: Export model using export grade components such as the Garpun-E radar and 3M24E missiles.

A typical 3K60 Bal system consists of the following components:
1x command vehicle on MZKT-7930 chassis
2x launch vehicle on MZKT-7930 chassis
2x transloader on MZKT-7930 chassis

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