Air defense / Self-propelled SAM systems / 9K35 Strela-10

9K35 Strela-10

General Facts

  • TYPE
    Self-propelled SAM system

  • ORIGIN
    USSR

  • NICKNAMES
    SA-13 Gopher (NATO reporting name)
    ZRK-BD (Russian military designation)
    Torpedo (nickname for CROA1 system)

  • DESIGNED
    1969 - 1976

  • DESIGNER
    KB Tochmash design bureau

  • PRODUCTION
    1975 - present?

  • PRODUCERS
    Russia - KMZ
    USSR - KMZ

  • QUANTITY
    Over 500 Strela-10 systems produced
    About 6 CROA1 produced

  • UNIT COST
    Unknown

  • CHARACTERISTICS
    Stand-alone system
    Amphibious capability
    Ability to use SA-9 missiles
    Low silhouette
    Lacks capable search or tracking radar

Introduction

The 9K35 Strela-10 is a late Cold War era self-propelled SAM system of Soviet origin. In the West this system is known by its NATO reporting SA-13 Gopher. The 9K35 can be seen as a much improved version of the earlier 9K31 Strela-1 (SA-9 Gaskin) system it was designed to replace.

Layout

The 9K35 is based on the MT-LB tracked amphibious chassis. The driver and commander are seated in the front, the engine is in the middle and the turret in the rear. The launcher is similar to the one on the 9K31, but has been fitted with a ranging radar and is able to fire the larger and much improved 9M37 missiles.

Firepower

The 9K35 is fitted with a launcher for four Strela-10 missiles. The earlier 9M31 missiles of the Strela-1 system can also be fired. The 9M37 missiles feature an infra-red seeker of much higher quality than the earlier 9M31 missiles. The maximum effective range is 5 km and the maximum altitude is 3 km. For self-defense a 7.62mm PKT machine gun can be mounted at the commander's position.

Protection

The steel armor protects against small arms fire and shell splinters. The 9K35 is operated under full armor protection, except for reloading the missiles. An NBC system is fitted while smoke grenade dischargers are not.

Mobility

The MT-LB chassis provides a good cross country mobility and reasonable road speed. A 240 hp diesel engine provides propulsion. The 9K35 is fully amphibious.

Users

The 9K35 has replaced the earlier 9K31 in Russia and most Eastern European nations. It is also widely used in the Middle East.

Variants

9K35 Strela-10 launch vehicle

The 9K35 Strela-10, which has the NATO designation SA-13 Gopher, is a self-propelled short range SAM system. It is based on the MT-LB tracked amphibious chassis. Four versions of the launch vehicle were created, which differ only in minor details and equipment associated with improved missiles.

Strela-10SV: This was the first version and was produced in limited quantity. It is capable of firing the 9M31 and 9M37 missiles.
Strela-10M and Strela-10M2 are near similar and the most common models. In addition to the 9M31 and 9M37 they fire the 9M37M and MD missiles.
Strela-10M3: This is an improved launch vehicle capable of firing the 9M333 missile.
Strela-10M4: Designation for earlier models updated to M3 standards.

TypeSelf-propelled SAM system
Crew3 (commander, driver, gunner)
Length6.93 m
Width2.85 m
Height3.97 m (firing position)
Ground clearance0.4 m
Weight12.1 t combat load
Ground pressure0.47 kg/cm2
WheelbaseTracked chassis, 6 roadwheels, drive sprocket front, idler rear
Turn radiuspivot?
EngineYaMZ-238V diesel, 240 hp at 2.100 rpm
Power ratio19.9 hp/t
TransmissionManual, 6 forward, 1 reverse
Speed62 km/h on road, 6 km/h in water
Fuel450 L
Range500 km
Wall0.7 m
Trench2.7 m
Gradient60% gradient, 30% slope
FordingAmphibious
ArmorSteel, up to 7 mm
NBC equipmentYes
Night visionYes
SmokeNo
Remarks-
ArmamentSA-13 Gopher missile (4x)
7.62mm PKB machine gun (optional)
Weapon1SA-13 Gopher missile
8 rounds, 4 ready to fire
-5 to +80° elevation, 50°/s powered
360° traverse, 100°/s powered
non-stabilized
Weapon27.62mm PKB machine gun on vehicle roof
500 rounds, 100 ready to fire
manual traverse and elevation
non-stabilized
Weapon3-
Weapon4-
Weapon5-
Weapon6-
TypeSelf-propelled SAM system
Crew3 (commander, driver, gunner)
Length6.45 m (hull), 6.6 m (launcher folded)
Width2.85 m
Height2.3 m (travelling), 3.8 m (firing position)
Ground clearance0.4 m
Weight12.3 t combat load
Ground pressure0.48 kg/cm2
WheelbaseTracked chassis, 6 roadwheels, drive sprocket front, idler rear
Turn radiuspivot?
EngineYaMZ-238V diesel, 240 hp at 2.100 rpm
Power ratio19.5 hp/t
TransmissionManual, 6 forward, 1 reverse
Speed62 km/h on road, 6 km/h in water
Fuel450 L
Range500 km
Wall0.7 m
Trench2.7 m
Gradient60% gradient, 30% slope
FordingAmphibious
ArmorSteel, up to 7 mm
NBC equipmentYes
Night visionYes
SmokeNo
Remarks-
ArmamentSA-13 Gopher missile (4x)
7.62mm PKB machine gun (optional)
Weapon1SA-13 Gopher missile
8 rounds, 4 ready to fire
-5 to +80° elevation, 50°/s powered
360° traverse, 100°/s powered
non-stabilized
Weapon27.62mm PKB machine gun on vehicle roof
500 rounds, 100 ready to fire
manual traverse and elevation
non-stabilized
Weapon3-
Weapon4-
Weapon5-
Weapon6-

9M37 Strela-10 missile

9M37: The 9M37 is an enlarged and more capable version of the earlier 9M31 missile and is fitted with an improved infra-red seeker. The missile has a conventional layout with the seeker in the front, followed by the warhead and the rocket engine. It is transported and launched from a ribbed container.
9M37M: Improved 9M37 that features a further improved infra-red seeker.
9M37MD: A 9M37M missile fitted with a heavier and more capable warhead.
9M333: The 9M333 is the latest missile for the 9K35 system and is a further improvement of the 9M37MD. It features a dual mode seeker with photo contrast and passive infra-red guidance. The 9M333 has a much better resistance to flares and decoys and is able to lock on to smaller targets such as UAV's and cruise missiles.

TypeSurface to air missile
Diameter0.12 m body, 0.36 m wingspan
Length2.19 m
Weight39 kg
Guidance9E47 Virazh PbS cooled photocontrast seeker, single band IR seeker
WarheadHE-Frag, 2.7 kg, impact and active xenon lamp proximity fuzes
PropulsionSingle-stage solid propellant rocket motor
Speed517 m/s max
Range0.8 to 5 km effective
Altitude25 m to 3.5 km
Engagement envelopemax target speed is 415 m/s approaching and 310 m/s receding
Remarks0.29 x 0.29 x 2.33 m launch container
TypeSurface to air missile
Diameter0.12 m body, 0.36 m wingspan
Length2.19 m
Weight39 kg
Guidance9E47M PbS cooled photocontrast seeker, single band IR seeker
WarheadHE-Frag, 2.7 kg, impact and active xenon lamp proximity fuzes
PropulsionSingle-stage solid propellant rocket motor
Speed517 m/s max
Range0.8 to 5 km effective
Altitude25 m to 3.5 km
Engagement envelopemax target speed is 415 m/s approaching and 310 m/s receding
Remarks0.29 x 0.29 x 2.33 m launch container
TypeSurface to air missile
Diameter0.12 m body, 0.36 m wingspan
Length2.23 m
Weight41 kg
Guidance9E47M PbS cooled photocontrast seeker, single band IR seeker
WarheadHE-Frag, 5 kg, impact and active laser proximity fuzes
PropulsionSingle-stage solid propellant rocket motor
Speed550 m/s max
Range0.8 to 5 km effective
Altitude25 m to 3.5 km
Engagement envelopemax target speed is 415 m/s approaching and 310 m/s receding
Remarks0.30 x 0.33 x 2.30 m launch container
TypeSurface to air missile
Diameter0.12 m body, 0.36 m wingspan
Length2.23 m
Weight41 kg
Guidance9E425 dual mode seeker with dual band passive IR and optical photo contrast
WarheadHE-Frag, 5 kg, impact and active laser proximity fuzes
PropulsionSingle-stage solid propellant rocket motor
Speed550 m/s max
Range0.5 to 5 km effective
Altitude10 m to 3.5 km
Engagement envelopemax target speed is 415 m/s approaching and 310 m/s receding
Remarks0.30 x 0.33 x 2.30 m launch container

Strjiela-10 CROA1

Strijela-10 CROA1: Croation modification of the Strela-10 system. Due to a lack of MT-LB chassis the launcher was placed on an armored version of the TAM-150 6x6 truck chassis. Only about 6 of such conversions were carried out. The CROA1 may launch the 9M37 missile, the improved 9M37M, the further improved 9M333 and the older and smaller 9M31 from the 9K31 Strela-1 system.

TypeSelf-propelled SAM system
Crew3 (commander, driver, gunner)
Length7.3 m
Width2.7 m
Height2.4 m (travelling), 3.64 m (launche raised)
Ground clearance?
Weight10.8 t combat load
Ground pressure?
WheelbaseWheeled chassis, 6x6
Turn radius?
Engine?
Power ratio?
Transmission?
Speed90 km/h on road, 35 km/h off road
Fuel?
Range?
Wall0.5 m
Trench0.6 m
Gradient70% gradient, 35% slope
Fording1.0 m
ArmorSteel
NBC equipment?
Night vision?
SmokeNo
Remarks-
ArmamentSA-13 Gopher missile (4x)
Weapon1SA-13 Gopher missile
8 rounds, 4 ready to fire
-5 to +80° elevation, 50°/s powered
360° traverse, 100°/s powered
non-stabilized
Weapon2-
Weapon3-
Weapon4-
Weapon5-
Weapon6-

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