Air defense / Self-propelled SAM systems / Shahine

Shahine

General Facts

  • TYPE
    Self-propelled SAM system

  • ORIGIN
    France

  • NICKNAMES
    Crotale 2000 (Shahine 1)
    Crotale 4000 (Shahine 2)

  • DESIGNED
    Early 1970's

  • DESIGNER
    Thomson-CSF

  • PRODUCTION
    1980 - 1990

  • PRODUCERS
    France - Thomson-CSF

  • QUANTITY
    73 AMX-30 firing units
    36 AMX-30 acquisition units
    19 ATTS firing units
    10 ATTS acquisition units

  • UNIT COST
    Unknown

  • CHARACTERISTICS
    Larger engagement radius than Crotale
    Parts commonality with AXM-30 tank
    Data link amongst vehicles and radar network
    Very expensive
    Large and heavy vehicles

Introduction

The Shahine is a self-propelled SAM system of French origin. It was developed in the 1970's for a contract awarded by Saudi Arabia. The Shahine is a further developed and more capable version of the widely used Crotale self-propelled SAM system. The Shahine was developed to keep up with armored forces and is to provide air defense at the front line.

Missile

The Shahine system uses the R460 missile, which is a further developed version of the R440 missile used by the Crotale system. The missile has a conventional layout. The fuze and control vanes are located at the front, followed by the warhead and battery. The solid propellant rocket motor makes up the middle and the cruciform wings and radar receiver are located at the rear.

Layout

The Shahine system consists of a fire unit with six missiles and a fire control radar and a separate acquisition radar. The majority of Shahine systems are based on the AMX-30 tracked chassis, although a towed shelter version was also produced. Usually a single acquisition is accompanied by two firing units. Additionally truck based transloaders with additional missiles accompany the Shahine system.

Guidance

Targets are acquired by the Shahine acquisition unit, which can also be given data from the TSQ-73 command center through the Shahine data link. The R460 missiles use radar command guidance towards the targets. Up to two missiles can be launched against a single target at a time. Alternatively the missiles may be guided optically in high ECM environments.

Firepower

The R460 missile performs better than the Crotale and has a speed of up to Mach 2.8. The maximum range is 11.8 km targets can be engaged up 6 km altitude. The kill probability is given as 0.9 against a Mach 0.75 target and 0.99 for a two missile salvo. The lethal range of the HE-frag warhead is 8 meter.

Mobility

The tracked chassis allows the Shahine to keep up with armored units. It provides a good cross country mobility and reasonable road speed. A 620 hp diesel engine provides propulsion and an APU is fitted to provide power when the engine is not running.

Users

The Shahine was only acquired by Saudi Arabia. The first batch was of the Shahine 1 type and subsequent batches of the improved Shahine 2 model. The Shahine system remains in Saudi use and several maintenance projects have been carried out.

Variants

Shahine firing unit

The Shahine firing unit is the main unit of the Shahine system. The firing unit is based on the AMX-30 chassis and is easily identified by its large turret with three Shahine missiles on either side and large fire control radar in the middle.

TypeSelf-propelled SAM system
Crew2 (driver, operator)
Length6.6 m
Width3.1 m
Height4 m
Ground clearance0.44 m
Weight38.8 t combat load
Ground pressure0.83 kg/cm2
WheelbaseTracked chassis, 5 roadwheels, idler front, drive sprocket rear
Turn radiuspivot
EngineDiesel, 620 hp at 2.400 rpm
Power ratio16.0 hp/t
TransmissionManual, 5 forward, 2 reverse
Speed60 km/h on road
Fuel?
Range?
Wall?
Trench?
Gradient?
Fording1.3 m
ArmorSteel
NBC equipmentYes
Night visionYes
Smoke2x2 smoke grenade dischargers
Remarks17 km range fire control radar
ArmamentR460 surface to air missile (6x)
Weapon1R460 surface to air missile on turret sides
6 missiles, all ready to fire
360° traverse, powered
non-stabilized
Weapon2-
Weapon3-
Weapon4-
Weapon5-
Weapon6-

Shahine acquisition unit

The Shahine acquisition unit is also based on the AMX-30 chassis and is fitted with a single large parabolic through Doppler E/F-band search and acquisition radar. The radar can be stowed when not in use.

TypeRadar vehicle
Crew?
Length6.6 m
Width3.1 m
Height4 m
Ground clearance0.44 m
Weight32.7 t combat load
Ground pressure0.69 kg/cm2
WheelbaseTracked chassis, 5 roadwheels, idler front, drive sprocket rear
Turn radiuspivot
EngineDiesel, 620 hp at 2.400 rpm
Power ratio19.0 hp/t
TransmissionManual, 5 forward, 2 reverse
Speed60 km/h on road
Fuel?
Range?
Wall?
Trench?
Gradient?
Fording1.3 m
ArmorSteel
NBC equipmentYes
Night visionYes
Smoke2x2 smoke grenade dischargers
Remarks19.5 km range and 6 km altitiude search radar
Armament-
Weapon1-
Weapon2-
Weapon3-
Weapon4-
Weapon5-
Weapon6-

Shahine ATTS

The Shahine Air Transportable Towed Shelter /ATTS comes as either firing unit or acquisition unit. The actual launcher and radar turret are similar to the ones mounted on the AMX-30 chassis. The shelter can be split up in two parts for easier air transportation.

TypeTowed SAM system
Crew?
OrdnanceR460 missile (6x)
Elevation?
Traverse360°, powered
Rate of fire-
Range-
Carriage6 wheel carriage with four outriggers
Weight20 t
Length?
Width?
Height?
Towing vehicle6x6 truck
Speed?
RemarksAPU fitted for autonomous use

R460 missile

The R460 missile is based on the Crotale missile but is heavier, has a longer range and higher speed. The R460 missile is only used with the Shahine system and cannot be launched by the Crotale. The missiles are fitted in a similar canister as the Crotale and are usually replaced three at a time in order to increase reload speed.

  • Specifications:
  • R460
TypeSurfrace to air missile
Diameter0.156 m body, 0.59 m wingspan
Length3.12 m
Weight100 kg
GuidanceRadar command guidance
Warhead15 kg HE-frag, contact and proximity fuze
PropulsionSolid propellant rocket motor
SpeedMach 2.8
Range0.5 km minimum head on
2.0 km minimum crossing target
11.8 km maximum head on
8.0 km maximum crossing target
Altitude15 m minimum, 6.8 km maximum
Engagement envelope35 g out to 6 km, 15 g out to 10 km, 8 g out to 14 km
Remarks-

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