Subsystems / Naval systems / 25mm 2M-3

25mm 2M-3

General Facts

  • TYPE
    Naval anti-aircraft gun

  • ORIGIN
    USSR

  • NICKNAMES
    Type 61 (Chinese production)

  • DESIGNED
    1945 - 1949

  • DESIGNER
    ?

  • PRODUCTION
    1953 - 1984 (USSR production)

  • PRODUCERS
    China
    USSR

  • QUANTITY
    Unknown

  • UNIT COST
    Unknown

  • CHARACTERISTICS
    Powerful rounds with good range
    Light mount and simple to install
    No fire control system

Introduction

The 2M-3 is a naval gun turret of Soviet origin. It was developed shortly after World War 2 to arm various smaller combat ships, submarines and civilian ships supporting the navy. The 25mm guns are unique to the Soviet navy and were not used on aircraft or land based applications.

Design

The design is based on the earlier 25mm 84-KM autocannon. The locally controlled open roof mount is rather simple and is fitted with two 110-PM autocannon, with the one positioned above the other. The single operator is seated on the left of the mount, the two guns are located in the middle and the ammunition is stored on the right. Normally the mount is operated hydraulicly but manual control is fitted as backup. The guns are air cooled but cooled with a water hose during sustained fire.

Firepower

The 110-PM autocannon fire the powerful 25x218mm round at a cyclic rate of fire of 450 rpm. The practical rate of fire is 270 to 300 rounds per minute. The 25mm rounds have a range of 2.5 km and may reach altitudes of 1.7 km. Since the weapons are manually aimed they are of little use against fast moving fighter aircraft.

Users

The 2M-3 is fitted on a wide variety of small boats such as the Komar guided missile craft and the P-4 and P-6 motor torpedo boats. For only a few years the submarine mount was used on the Quebec, Whale, Whiskey and Zulu class submarines. In Chinese service they are used on the Hainan, Hoku, Huangfen, Lada and Shanghai classes as well as various mine warfare and auxiliary ships. In both Soviet and Chinese service newer classes were fitted with the larger and more powerful AK-230 turret.

Variants

25mm 2M-3

2M-3: Original 2M-3 mount with long recoil operated 110-PM autocannon.
2M-3M: Modified 2M-3 gun mount with gas operated 110-PM autocannon.
2M-8: Wet gun mount similar to 2M-3 for use on submarines. Guns are fed from 7 round clips instead of belts.
Type 61: Chinese production 2M-3 mount.

TypeNaval gun turret
Armament2x 25mm L/79 110-PM, 900 m/s, 12.000 round barrel life
Rate of fire450 rpm
Ammunition65 round belt per gun
Range2.5 km effective range, 1.7 km AA-ceiling
Traverse360°, 40°/s hydraulic, 15°/s manual
Elevation-12 to +85°, 70°/s hydraulic, 25°/s manual
Dimensions?
Weight1.500 kg
Crew1
Fire controlNone, local control only
Remarks-
TypeNaval gun turret
Armament2x 25mm L/79 110-PM, 900 m/s, 12.000 round barrel life
Rate of fire470 - 480 rpm
Ammunition65 round belt per gun
Range2.5 km effective range, 1.7 km AA-ceiling
Traverse360°, 40°/s hydraulic, 15°/s manual
Elevation-12 to +85°, 70°/s hydraulic, 25°/s manual
Dimensions?
Weight1.515 kg
Crew1
Fire controlNone, local control only
Remarks-

25mm 110-PM

The 110-PM cannon were developed specifically for use in the 2M-3 mount and are not found in any other application. The original model uses long recoil operation. Later this was changed to gas operation to allow for a higher rate of fire.

TypeAutocannon
Caliber25x218mm Soviet
MechanismLong recoil
Barrel1.84 m, 12 grooves, rifled for 1.775 m
Dimensions2.845 m long
Weight101 kg
Feeding65 round belt, 7 round box in 2M-8 version
Rate of fire450 rpm
Muzzle velocity900 m/s
Recoil20 cm recoil length
RemarksFlash hider on muzzle
TypeAutocannon
Caliber25x218mm Soviet
MechanismGas operated
Barrel1.84 m, 12 grooves, rifled for 1.775 m
Dimensions2.845 m long
Weight110 kg
Feeding65 round belt
Rate of fire470 - 480 rpm
Muzzle velocity900 m/s
Recoil20 cm recoil length
RemarksFlash hider on muzzle

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