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P-270 Moskit

P-100 | NATO: SS-N-22 Sunburn


P-270 Moskit

Forward view of Moskit anti-ship missile seen during hoisting operations.
Source: - © Copyright lies with original owner

Soviet Union
Anti-ship missile
Entered service
1984 or 1985
In service
1973 - Late 1970's (design project)
1978 - 1982 (Soviet state tests)
Soviet Union - MKB Raduga
1984 - 2014
Soviet Union - Progress plant, Arsenyev
Russia - Progress plant, Arsenyev
Number produced
Several hundred
SS-N-22 Sunburn (NATO reporting name)
3M80, 3M82 (GRAU index)
Notable users
Soviet Union



The Moskit is a late Cold War era supersonic anti-ship missile of Soviet origin. The Moskit was developed to arm guided missile destroyers and corvettes with anti-ship missiles that could engage carrier battle groups, piercing their significant air defense capability. The Soviet solution was to reduce the time and probability to detect and intercept the Moskit to an absolute minimum. This was achieved by combining a sea skimming flight pattern with supersonic speed.


The Moskit is a long cylindrical missile with ramjet engine with four distinctive air inlets. This design was derived from the 3M9 (NATO: SA-6 Gainful) surface to air missile. The air inlets, wings and body are made of titanium in order to cope with the heat of air friction at high speeds in dense air at low altitude. Upon launch the Moskit is boosted to initial flight speed by a solid propellant rocket motor located within the combustion chamber of the ramjet. The booster motor is ejected by the air flow and then the ramjet engine takes over. The seeker is located in the radar transparent nose cone. This is followed by the guidance and radio altimeter unit. The warhead section is located between the guidance unit and fuel tank.


The Moskit uses a radar seeker with both passive and active homing abilities. There is no secondary optical seeker. The Moskit uses inertial navigation towards the target area. Mid course updates can be send to update the target zone in which the missile will activate its radar seeker. These mid course updates are sent via datalink via the Ka-25Ts airborne radar helicopter, Tu-95RT maritime patrol aircraft or even the Legenda nuclear powered naval reconnaissance satellite system. The associated fire control computer aboard the ship allows for a four missile volley with 5 second intervals between missile launch. The Moskit may perform an S-pattern evasive maneuver in the final stage, resulting in reduced effective range and terminal velocity.


The Moskit has a 300 kg warhead section and uses a delayed impact fuse. This is augmented by the kinetic energy of the missile and any fuel that is not yet spent. This makes a single hit of a Moskit effective against larger vessels. A Moskit may not immediately sink an aircraft carrier, but will most likely result in a mission kill. Effective range of the early 3M80 is about 90 km, with the 3M82 reaching up to 120 km. This is less than many smaller sea skimming missiles. However, the Moskit is and supersonic and sea skimming all the way from launch, making it very hard to detect. The 3M80MVE adds a high and low attack profile, exchanging stealth for an increased range of 160 km.


The Moskit was used on several platforms dedicated to carry and launch a missile of this size. Due to its size it could not be as universally carried like the Western Harpoon or Exocet. The main platform was the Project 956 Sarych (NATO: Sovremenny) class guided missile destroyer. Several smaller vessels such as the conventional Project 1241.1 Molniya (NATO: Tarantul III) class and surface effect Project 1239 (NATO: Dergach) class corvettes were armed with Moskit as well.


The Moskit was to be one of the main anti-ship weapons of the Soviet Union, alongside the larger P-500 and P-700 launched from cruisers. The protracted design period made that the Moskit entered service when the Soviet economy already was in a bad shape. With domestic acquisition behind schedule and lack of funds to finance exports the Moskit was never exported, not even to Warsaw Pact members. However, after the fall of the Soviet Union the Moskit was offered for export sales. China was the only customer, acquiring the 3M80E and 3M80MVE on two batches of two Project 956 destroyers. The Moskit remains in active service, but is no longer in production.


P-270 Moskit

Moskit anti-ship missile seen in a loading cradle during reload operations on a Russian navy Project 1231.1M Molniya (NATO: Tarantul III) class corvette.
Source: - © Copyright lies with original owner

Soviet variants

3M80 Moskit
Original Moskit missile introduced in 1984 or 1985. This has a maximum range of 90 to 100 km. Also known as P-100 Moskit in the Soviet/Russian navy.
3M82 Moskit-M
Improved variant of the Moskit aimed at extending the range and increasing the flight speed. This is achieved by using a more energy dense fuel for the ramjet engine, having a larger fuel tank and having a variable dimension nozzle, which retains optimum efficiency at different flight speeds. Maximum range is now 100 to 120 km. Possibly known as P-100M and/or P-105 Moskit in the Soviet/Russian navy.

Export variants

Export model of the 3M82 missile with 120 km range.
Proposed export model of the 3M80 missile with 100 km range.
Updated model of the 3M80E which adds a high-low attack pattern derived from the air launched Kh-41. This results in a longer range by flying the first stretch of the flight at higher altitude in thinner air.



Facts 3M80 3M82 3M80MVE
Soviet Union
Anti-ship missile
9.385 m
0.76 m
2.1 m wings extended
1.3 m wings folded
3.950 kg
Terminal phase
Active / passive radar homing seeker
Initial phase
Inertial navigation
Mid course updates from Ka-25Ts helicopter, Tu-95RT maritime patrol aircraft or Legenda satellites
Penetrating high explosive warhead
300 kg including about 150 kg explosive filler
Delayed impact fuse
Sustainer engine
3D80 liquid fueled ramjet engine
250 s burn time
Booster engine
Solid propellant booster
Engagement envelope
Mach 2.35
90 km, possibly up and over 100 km
10 km minimum
7 to 20 m above sea level
G force
10 to 15 G during turns up to 60°


Project 1239 Sivuch class

Soviet surface effect guided missile corvette. Two ships in class.

Project 1155.1 Fregat-M class

Soviet general purpose destroyer with emphasis on anti-submarine warfare. Single ship in class. Known by NATO as Udaloy II class.