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Type 91 Kin-SAM


91式携帯地対空誘導弾


Overview


Type 91 Kin-SAM

Two Japanese service members with Type 91 Kin-SAM Kai man portable SAM system seen in 2008.
Source: US Air Force - © Public domain

Origin
Japan
Type
Man portable SAM system
Entered service
1994 for Type 91
2007 for Type 91 Kai
Status
In service
Development
1979 - 1990 (Type 91)
2002 - 2006 (Type 91 Kai)
Developer
Japan - Technical Research and Development Institute
Japan - Toshiba
Production
1991 - 2005 (Type 91)
2007 - 2010 (Type 91 Kai)
Producer
Japan - Toshiba
Unit cost
$ 145.000 in 2006
Number produced
279 sets of Type 91
77 sets of Type 91 Kai
Designations
Hand Arrow (nickname)
SAM-2 = Type 91
SAM-2B = Type 91 Kai
Notable users
Japan

Description


Introduction

The Type 91 Kin-SAM is a modern era man portable surface to air missile of Japanese origin. It was developed in the 1980's as a domestic alternative to the FIM-92 Stinger missile, to which it bears a striking resemblance. It is also known by the official nickname of "SAM-2" and colloquial nickname of "Hand Arrow".

Design

The Type 91 Kin-SAM was developed analogously to the first generation American FIM-92 Stinger. Externally it looks very similar, having a round launch tube, elongated sight unit, cylindrical battery pack and IFF sensor. However, the missile design is somewhat different, having a seeker that comings infrared images with visible light images.

Firepower

The Type 91 Kin-SAM is a short range system that can be used against fighter aircraft, low flying transport aircraft and helicopters. The seeker design of the original Type 91 had a better daytime performance than the early model Stinger, but suffered at night. The imaging infrared sensor of the improved Kai model mitigates this. The maximum range is 5 km and minimum range is 0.3 km. Maximum engagement altitude is about 3.5 km under optimal conditions.

Mobility

The Type 91 Kin-SAM is a very portable system, weighing 17 kg for a loaded launcher. A self-propelled variant was developed as well. This is known as the Type 93 and is based on the Kokidosha 4x4 all terrain vehicle. This pickup style vehicle has a small unmanned turret with optical sensors and two quadruple launch boxes.

Users

The Type 91 Kin-SAM was adopted by Japanese force in 1991. The improved Kai version was adopted in 2007. Several hundred 'sets' have been produced, which likely refers to the gripstock launcher. Conforming to Japanese legislation the Type 91 has not been exported, making Japan the sole users.

Variants


Type 91 Kin-SAM

US airman holding a Japanese Type 91 Kin-SAM Kai man portable SAM system during a joint exercise in the USA in 2003.
Source: US Air Force - © Public domain

Variants of the Type 91 missile

Type 91
Original production model introduced in 1994. The missile uses infrared homing combined with visible light imaging.
Type 91 Kai
Improved production model introduced in 2007. Updated missile with improved imaging infrared (IIR) seeker and low smoke motor. The new seeker provides improved night fighting and low altitude performance.

Details


Facts Type 91 Type 91 Kai
General
Origin
Japan
Type
Surface to air missile
Dimensions
Diameter
80 mm
Length
1.43 m
Wingspan
0.2 m
Weight
9 kg missile
17 kg including gripstock launcher
Guidance
Guidance mode
Infrared combined with visible light imaging seeker
Warhead
Type
Directed HE-fragmentation
Fuse
Proximity fuse
Engagement envelope
Propulsion
Single-stage solid propellant rocket motor, plus ejection motor
Speed
Mach 1.9
Range
5 km maximum
0.3 km minimum
Altitude
About 3.5 km maximum

Media


Related articles


Type 93 Kin-SAM

The Type 93 is a self-propelled SAM system based on a 4x4 chassis. This system had eight Type 91 missiles ready to fire.