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BM-14



Overview


BM-14-16

Artist impression of BM-14 launcher based on Zil-157 truck chassis.
Source: www.waile.com - © copyright lies with original owner

Origin
Soviet Union
Type
Multiple rocket launcher
Entered service
1952
Status
Obsolete
Development
1947 - 1951 (development)
1952 (Soviet state trials)
Developer
Soviet Union - NII 303
Production
1952 - late 1960's
Producer
Soviet Union
Unit cost
Limited production costs
Number produced
Designations
8U32 (GRAU index for BM-14-16)
2B2 (GRAU index for BM-14M)
2B2R (GRAU index for BM-14MM)
8U35 (GRAU index for BM-14-17)
Notable users
Soviet Union

Description


Introduction

The BM-14 is a series of early Cold War era multiple rocket launchers of Soviet origin. The BM-14 was developed in the late 1940's to replace the famous World War 2 era BM-13 Katushya. Its design was partly inspired by the Nazi German Nebelwerfer.

Design

A major design rationale of the BM-14 is the cost effectiveness of the launch vehicle, and in particular its ammunition. Soviet doctrine called for massed artillery strikes on enemy lines only moments before an assault, and this is what the BM-14 is designed to achieve. The BM-14 is a conventional design, usually consisting of two rows of eight launch tubes. These are fitted on a standard tactical truck chassis. Aiming is done with an indirect fire sight attached to the launcher. The rockets feature solid propellant, are spin stabilized and do not feature fins. Several types of warheads are available.

Firepower

All BM-14 launchers feature 16 or 17 launch tubes for the same family of 140mm M-140 rockets. They can be ripple fired in 10 seconds and have a range of 9.5 km. The accuracy is an improvement over the earlier Katushya, but still rather limited. The warhead types include HE-Frag, smoke and chemical.

Protection

All BM-14 launchers do not feature any protection from direct and indirect fire or NBC threats. The launcher is operated, fired and reloaded from outside the vehicle. Unlike other types of rocket artillery, the short range makes the BM-14 particularly susceptible to counter battery fire. This makes the mobility of the launcher the only form of protection.

Mobility

The BM-14 launcher has been fitted onto at least five types of 4x4 and 6x6 military trucks, providing it with good mobility on roads and reasonable mobility in the field. For airborne troops the towed RPU-14 was developed, which is usually towed by jeeps or light trucks. It can also be manhandled over short distances in the field.

Users

The BM-14 was adopted by Soviet forces, various Warsaw Pact nations and many Soviet allies in Africa, Asia and the Middle East. They have been used in various conflicts, but most have been replaced by the later and far more capable BM-21 Grad. Nowadays the BM-14 is considered obsolete and hardly any remain in service. In the last two decades irregular forces have used M-14 rockets in makeshift portable launchers as a weapon to harass organized forces in their encampments.

Variants


BM-14-17

Early BM-14-17 launch vehicle with old 16 round launcher instead of 17 round one.
Source: Lvova - © GNU Attribution - Share Alike license

Variants of BM-14 launch vehicles

BM-14-16
Original version with 16 launch tubes on ZiL-151 6x6 truck. Introduced in 1952.
BM-14M
Improved BM-14-16 based on ZiL-157 6x6 truck. Introduced in 1958.
BM-14MM
A 16 round launcher mounted on a ZiL-131 6x6 chassis. Introduced in 1959.
BM-14-17
A 17 round launcher mounted on a GAZ-69A 4x4 light truck. Introduced in 1959.
BM-14-17M
A 17 round launcher mounted on a newer GAZ-66 light 4x4 truck.

140mm M-14

The BM-14 series of multiple rocket launchers fire the 140mm M-14 family of artillery rockets. These are described in a seperate article.

Details


Facts BM-14-16 BM-14-17
General
Origin
Soviet Union
Type
Multiple rocket launcher
Crew
7
Dimensions
Weight
8.4 t combat load
7 t empty
Length
6.92 m
Width
2.3 m
Height
3.17 m
Main armament
Type
140mm M-14 artillery rocket
Launcher
16-tube launcher
Ammunition
16 rockets, all ready to fire
Elevation
0 to +52°
Traverse
140° left, 60° right
Rate of fire
16 rockets in 7 to 10 seconds
Range
9.5 km for M-14OF
Chassis
Chassis model
ZiS-151 truck
Chassis type
Wheeled chassis, 6x6
Wheelbase
3.67 m + 1.22 m
Tread
1.6 m
Tire size
8.25 x20
Suspension
Leaf spring
Automotive
Engine model
ZiL-121
Engine type
6-cylinder petrol
Power output
92 hp at 2.600 rpm
Transmission
Manual, 5 forward, 1 reverse
Fuel
2x 150 L
Mobility
Speed
60 km/h on road
Range
600 km on road
Turn radius
11.2 m
Power to weight ratio
11.0 hp/t
Obstacle crossing
Ground clearance
0.27 m
Wall
0.6 m
Trench
0.7 m
Gradient
50 %
Fording
0.8 m
Protection
Armor type
None, softskin vehicle
NBC system
No
Smoke system
No
Fire suppression
No
Equipment
Night vision
No
Fire control
Indirect fire sight mounted on launcher
Radio
No

Media