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Kh-35 Uran

3M24 | NATO: SS-N-25 Switchblade & AS-20 Kayak


3K60 Bal launch vehicle

3M24 missile being fired by Russian forces during an excersize.
Source: Unknown author - © copyright lies with original owner

Anti-ship missile
Entered service
2003 for Kh-35
2015 for Kh-35U
In service
1977 - Early 2000's
Soviet Union
1990's - present
Unit cost
About $ 500.000 for export in 2010
3M24 (GRAU index)
Izdeliye 78 (article index)
SS-N-25 Switchblade (NATO reporting name for surface launched model)
AS-20 Kayak (NATO reporting name for air launch model)
Uran, "Uranus" (official nicknam)



The Kh-35 Uran is a modern anti-ship missile of Russian origin. The Kh-35 is a subsonic sea skimming missile, more akin to the US Harpoon than contemporary Soviet supersonic anti-ship missiles. Most of the development took place in the 1980's in the Soviet Union. The subsonic sea skimming design was mainly chosen in order to reduce size and weight, since fighter and strike aircraft were to be the main launch platform. In practice the Kh-35 is now predominantly used as a naval anti-ship missile.


The Kh-35 Uran has a similar design pattern as the US Harpoon and French Exocet. As such it was also nicknamed "Harpoonski" in the West. Despite the similar design pattern the Kh-35 is a domestic design. The long cylindrical body houses the seeker and warhead in the nose. The flight control systems are located in the center, with the liquid fuel and turbojet engine located at the rear. There are four large folding wings in the center and four control fins at the rear. The solid propellant booster section has four long folding fins. For use on fast moving aircraft the booster section is omitted.


The Kh-35 uses an inertial navigation system and active radar homing in the terminal phase. The active radar in the Kh-35 has a seeker range of 20 km. This is improved to 50 km on the Kh-35U, possibly including the passive radar mode. The Kh-35U also adds satellite navigation to augment the inertial navigation system. Possibly the satellite navigation allows for a land attack capability.


The Kh-35 Uran has a HE-Fragmentation warhead that is fitted with a delayed impact fuse. The warhead is reportedly effective against vessels with up to a 5.000 t displacement. The Kh-35 has a sea skimming flight profile of 10 to 15 m above sea level, dropping down to 4 m in the terminal phase. Maximum range is 130 km with a speed of about Mach 0.8. The Kh-35U carries more fuel and adds a high-low flight pattern extending the maximum range up to 260 km.


The Kh-35 is a cost-effective and versatile anti-ship missile. Russia acquired it in large numbers. Mostly for use on vessels ranging from fast missile boats to frigates. In Russia it is also used in coastal defense systems and on strike aircraft. Large numbers of Kh-35 have been exported to nations that often acquire Soviet military equipment.

Kh-35 - The first generation

The first generation of Kh-35 was produced in many models for specific launch platforms. Each of those has an export counterpart. For some export customers specific modifications were offered. This resulted in a wide range of models with roughly similar characteristics.

Variants of Kh-35 - a simplified overview

Naval and land based model. Launched from a cylindrical launch tube and fitted with booster section. Known in NATO as SS-N-25 Switchblade. Export model is 3M24E.
Air launched model for fast moving aircraft without booster section. Known by NATO as AS-20 Kayak. Export model is Kh-35E.
Air launched model for use on helicopters. Fitted with booster section. Probably produced only in limited numbers for testing. Also known by NATO as AS-20 Kayak.

Kh-35E Uran-E

Kh-35E Uran-E air launched anti-ship missile on display in 2009.
Source: Allocer - © GNU Attribution Share Alike license

Kh-35U - The second generation

Kh-35UE Uran-UE

Kh-35E Uran-E anti-ship missile on display in 2013 alongside a Bal-E coastal defense system. Note the booster section at the rear.
Source: Pliskin - © Public domain

Kh-35U is a deep modernization of the Kh-35 and can be considered a new generation. Kh-35U is no longer offered as a myriad of versions for different launch platforms. Instead it is a unified design which is used with or without booster section.

Combat effectiveness has been significantly improved with a nearly double maximum range and improved guidance. Satellite navigation aids the inertial navigation system and possibly adds a limited land attack capability. The active radar seeker now also has a passive mode, postponing detection by going active.

Variants of Kh-35U

Variant for Russian use.
Variant for export sales.


Facts Kh-35 Kh-35U
Anti-ship missile
3.85 m in flight
4.4 m with booster section
0.42 m
1.33 m
620 kg with booster
520 kg without booster
Terminal phase
ARGS-35 active radar homing seeker, 20 km range
Initial phase
Inertial navigation
145 kg
Delayed impact fuse
Engagement envelope
Turbojet sustainer engine
Solid propellant booster section
Mach 0.8
130 km
10 to 15 m mid course
4 m above sea level in terminal phase


Launch platforms

Note: incomplete list

3K60 Bal

Land based road mobile coastal defense system. There are eight missiles on each launch vehicle.

Delhi class

Indian class of destroyers, Armed with 4x4 Uran anti-ship missiles.

Project 11540 Yastreb class

Russian class of frigates. The second vessel in class is fitted with 2x4 Uran anti-ship missiles.

Kora class

Indian class of corvettes. Fitted with 4x4 Uran anti-ship missiles.

Project 1241.8 Molniya class

Upgrade of the Molniya class of missile boats with 4x4 Uran anti-ship missiles.