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M60 Patton



Overview


M60A3 TTS

Brazilian army M60A3 TTS main battle tank in the field in 2021.
Source: Exército Brasileiro - © GNU Attribution - Share Alike license

Origin
United States
Type
Main battle tank
Entered service
1960 for M60 Patton
1979 for M60A3
Status
In service
Development
1950's
Developer
United States
Production
1959 to 1962 (M60 Patton)
1962 to 1980 (M60A1)
1978 to 1983 (M60A3)
Producer
United States - Detroit Tank Arsenal
Number produced
2.205 M60 Patton
7.948 M60A1
1.052 M60A3
3.268 M60A1 converted to A3 for export
1.391 M60A1 converted to A3 TTS
Designations
105mm Gun Tank M60 (official designation)

Description


Introduction

The M60 Patton is an early Cold War era main battle tank of US origin. The M60 was developed as a product-improved M48 Patton. The M60 and its variants served in large numbers throughout the Cold War with US forces and various allies. Interestingly, the M60 might be the best known Patton tank while officially not Patton family.

Design

The M60 Patton is a deep modernization of the M48A2 Patton tank. Whereas the M48 has a boat-shaped hull front the M60 has a sleek welded plate hull front. This was to accommodate a type of armor composition that was eventually never used due to production difficulties. The original M60 has a small round turret similar to the M48. The improved M60A1 and A3 models feature the distinctive elongated turret with commander's cupola.

Firepower

The main armament of the M60 Patton is the manually loaded 105mm M68 rifled gun. This is a license produced version of the British L7. It differs in having a vertical sliding breech block and eccentric fume extractor due to the tall engine deck of the M60. Coaxial armament consists of a 7.62mm M73 or M219 vehicle machine gun. In the latest updates this was replaced by the more reliable M240 coaxial machine gun. The large commander's cupola houses the 12.7mm M85 heavy machine gun.

Protection

The M60 Patton features a cast hull with rolled steel glacis plate. The turret of the original M60 is nearly similar to the M48A2. The M60A1 introduced an improved armor package with a thicker glacis plate and new elongated turret design with substantial improved frontal armor thickness. This brings the M60A1 on par with the M103 heavy tank over the frontal arc. In Israeli service and with the US marine corps several types of explosive reactive armor packages were employed. The latest types of Israeli applique armor packages alter the appearance of the M60 significantly.

Mobility

The M60 Patton has a reasonable mobility. The tracked chassis allows it to traverse difficult terrain. The maximum road speed is quite limited at only 48 km/h. This makes the M60 different from the European doctrine of mobility as shown by the German Leopard 1 and French AMX-30.

Users

The M60 Patton was adopted in large numbers as the standard main battle tank of the US army and US marine corps. It was also widely exported to US allies, but with limited use by European nations since various local designs were introduced at the same time. Many older types of M60 were upgraded to M60A3 and A3 TTS standard for domestic use and export sales. Israel acquired large numbers and carried out several domestic deep modernization programs. The M60 remains in use with several nations. In US service the newer M1 Abrams replaced the M60 Patton.

Variants


M60 Patton

Original production model as introduced in 1960. Features a small turret derived from the M48 Patton design. Just over 2.200 produced.

M60A1 Patton

Improved variant with the larger turret. First introduced in 1962. Most common production model with nearly 8.000 produced.
Upgrades various times during its service life. Most notably with stabilization (AOS) and reliability improvements (RISE). About half of the M60A1 were upgraded to M60A3 for domestic use and export sales.

M60A3 Patton

The M60A3 is an upgrade over the M60A1. It features enhanced turret armor, all of the RISE upgrades, improved gun stabilization, improved fire control system and new selection of 105mm ammunition. When fitted with the AN/VSG2 Tank Thermal Sight (TTS) for the gunner the tank is known as the M60A3 TTS.

Details


Facts M60 Patton M60A1 Patton M60A3 Patton
General
Origin
United States
Type
Main battle tank
Crew
4 (commander, driver, gunner, loader)
Dimensions
Weight
46.3 t combat load
Length
9.35 m gun forward
6.95 m hull
Width
3.63 m
Height
3.21 m to commander's cupola
Main armament
Type
105mm M68 rifled gun
Mount
Main gun in turret
Ammunition
57 rounds, 16 ready to fire
Elevation
-9° to +19°
Elevation rate
4°/s
Traverse
360°
Traverse rate
24°/s
Coaxial armament
Type
7.62mm M73 machine gun
Mount
Coaxial with main armament
Ammunition
5.950 rounds, 2.000 ready to fire
Traverse
Traverse and elevation as main armament
Secondary armament
Type
12.7mm M85 machine gun
Mount
M19 commander's cupola
Ammunition
900 rounds, 100 ready to fire
Elevation
-10° to +54°, manual
Traverse
360°, manual
Stabilizer
No
Chassis
Chassis type
Tracked chassis, 6 roadwheels
Layout
Idler front and drive sprocket rear
Ground pressure
0.77 kg/cm²
Tread
2.9 m
Track width
0.71 m
Track on ground
4.2 m
Suspension
Torsion bar
Automotive
Engine model
Continental AVDS-1790-2A
Engine type
V12 supercharged diesel
Power output
750 hp at 2.400 rpm
Transmission
General Motors CD-850-5 or 6
2 forward, 1 reverse
Fuel
1.460 L
Mobility
Speed
48 km/h
Range
480 km on road
Turn radius
Pivot
Power to weight ratio
16.2 hp/t
Obstacle crossing
Ground clearance
0.4 m
Wall
0.9 m
Trench
2.6 m
Gradient
60 %
Slope
30 %
Fording
1.2 m
Protection
Armor type
Cast steel
Armor thickness
85 to 93 mm hull front
36 to 74 mm hull sides
30 to 41 mm hull rear
About 180 mm turret front
About 110 mm gun shield
About 76 mm turret sides
About 51mm turret rear
24 mm turret top
NBC system
Yes, M13A1 overpressure system
Smoke system
No
Equipment
Night vision
Infrared for driver
Optional AN/VSS-1(V)1 IR searchlight
Fire control
M16 Fire Control System
8x gunner sight, 7.5° view
Coincidence rangefinder
Radio
Yes

Vehicles based on M60 chassis


Note: incomplete list

M728 Combat Engineer Vehicle

Combat engineer vehicle based on M60 Patton chassis.

M60 AVLB

Bridge laying vehicle based on M60 Patton chassis. Launches a 19 m scissor bridge with 54 t capacity.

Magach 7A

Israeli deep modernization of the original M60 Patton with small style turret. The Magach 7A can be identified by the angular flat-faced turret armor.

Magach 7C

Further upgrade of Magach 7A with improved wedge shaped turret armor. Believed to be converted in larger numbers than the Magach 7A.

Media


Subcomponents


105mm M68

The main armament of the M60 Patton is the 105mm M68 rifled gun, a license produced derivative of the Royal Ordnance L7.

12.7mm M85

The 12.7mm M85 is fitted in the commander's cupola on top of the turret. It has a selectable rate of fire and is known as less reliable than the M2HB.

7.62mm M240

Late model M60A3's are fitted with the M240 coaxial machine gun.