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4K51 Rubezh


NATO: SS-C-3 Styx


Overview


4K51 Rubezh

Romanian Rubezh-E in the firing position with radar raised and launcher rotated to the right.
Source: Unknown author - © copyright lies with original owner

Origin
Soviet Union
Type
Coastal defense system
Entered service
1978
Status
In service
Development
1970 - 1978
Design project
1975 - 1977
Soviet state trails
Developer
Soviet Union - KBM Kolomna
Production
1978 - ?
Producer
Soviet Union - KBM Kolomna
System integration of launch vehicle
Designations
4K51
GRAU index for entire system
3P51
GRAU index for launch vehicle
Rubezh
Official nickname, Russian for "frontier"
SSC-3 Styx
NATO reporting name
Raketenkomplex Rubesh-Ä
East German designation

Description


Introduction

The 4K51 Rubezh system is a late Cold War era coastal defense system of Soviet origin. It is best known by its NATO designation SS-C-3 Styx. The 4K51 is a much less complex design than the previous 4K44 Redut (SS-C-1 Sepal) and S-2 Sopka (SS-C-2 Samlet). Originally the 4K51 was aimed at the export market, but was also quickly adopted by Soviet forces as a cost-effective standalone system.

Layout

For a coastal defense system the 4K51 uses surprisingly few components. All subsystems are fitted onto one vehicle. This vehicle is based on the large MAZ-543 8x8 truck chassis. The driver's cab and engine are mounted at the front. The command module and radar are in the center of the vehicle. The large twin round launcher is fitted at the rear.

Firepower

The 4K51 fires the large subsonic P-15 Termit missile, known in the West as the SS-N-2 Styx. The P-15M versions with mid course updates, the P-20 version with active radar guidance and P-21 version with infra-red guidance can be launched. The large twin round launcher is rotated either to the left or right, in the direction of the target. Normally each launch unit is accompanied by two 6x6 trucks outfitted with a crane and a spare missile. The P-15M has a maximum effective range of 80 km. The practical range depends on radar horizon and availability of external target data.

Targeting

The command module houses the remaining four crew members needed to operate the weapon. On top of the command module the 3Ts-25 Garpun surface search radar is fitted, which is raised when in use. The 4K51 can operate autonomously using its own radar to detect and track targets. However, it is mostly used in conjunction with other means of detection, such as land based radars or aircraft.

Mobility

The 4K51 is based on the massive MAZ-543 high mobility truck. Although it is a heavy and large system the large 8x8 truck provides good all terrain performance. In the mid-1980's the system was upgraded by using the improved MAZ-543M chassis.

Users

The foremost user of the 4K51 system has been the USSR. Like the ship based version of the Termit missile the 4K51 was widely exported. It was mainly adopted by nations in Eastern Europe and the Middle East.

Details


4K51 Rubezh

A number of 4K51 Rubezh on parade.
Source: MuRena - © copyright lies with original owner

4K51 Rubezh / SSC-3 Styx

The 3P51 fire control and launch vehicle is the sole component of the 4K51 Rubezh coastal defense system. The twin round launcher, command and control module and radar are all fitted onto the same vehicle.

Battery composition

A typical battery consists of:
- 4x 3P51M launch vehicle
- 4x Transloader based on KrAZ-255B chassis
- Optional mast mounted surface search radar
- Various support vehicles

Variants of the launch vehicle

3P51
Original production version of the 4K51 Rubezh that uses an older version of the MAZ-543 chassis. Pre-production vehicles may have been fitted with MR-331 Rangout (Square Tie) radar instead of Garpun.
3P51M
Improved production model based on the improved MAZ-543M chassis. It was introduced in the 1980's and is the most common version.
Facts 3P51M
General
Origin
Soviet Union
Type
Coastal defense system
Crew
5 (commander, driver, radio operator, gunner, radar operator)
Dimensions
Weight
43.5 t combat load
38 t empty
Length
13.95 m
Width
3.2 m
Height
4.1 m on the move
7.2 m with radar in raised position
Fire control system
Radar
Garpun detection and fire control radar
Emplacement time
5 minutes
Armament
Type
SS-N-2 Styx subsonic anti-ship missile
Mount
KT-161 rotating twin launcher at rear of vehicle
Ammunition
2 missiles, both ready to fire
Maximum range
Up to 80 km
Minimum range
8 km
Automotive
Chassis type
MAZ-543M 8x8 truck, 2.2 + 3.3 + 2.2 m wheelbase
Engine model
D12A-525A 38.9 L V12 diesel
Power output
525 hp at 2.100 rpm
Transmission
Hydromechanical, 3 forward, 1 reverse
Mobility
Max speed
60 km/h on roads
Turn radius
13.5 m
Fuel
550 L
Range
450 km
Wall
0.78 m
Trench
3.38 m
Gradient
57% gradient, 44% slope
Fording
1.3 m

Media


The 3P51 fire control and launch vehicle is the sole component of the 4K51 Rubezh coastal defense system. The twin round launcher, command and control module and radar are fitted onto the vehicle.

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The 3K60 Bal (SS-C-6 Sennight) was developed in the late 1990's as a newer and more capable replacement for the 4K51 Rubezh, while retaining mobility and limited costs.

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The A-222 Bereg coastal artillery system can be used alongside the 4K51 Rubezh in order to engage target within the minimum range of the missile system.