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M-22 Uragan

NATO: SA-N-7, SA-N-12 | Export: Shtil | Yezh


M-22 Uragan

MS-196 single arm launcher with 9M38M1 surface to air missile of the M-22 Uragan naval SAM system.
Source: - © Copyright lies with original owner

Soviet Union
Naval SAM system
Entered service
In service
1972 - 1976 (system design)
1980 - 1983 (Soviet state tests)
Soviet Union - NPO Altair
Early 1980's - Present
Soviet Union
Number produced
About 40 systems
3K90, 3S90 (GRAU index)
Shtil (export designation)
SA-N-7, SA-N-12 (NATO reporting name)
Notable users
Soviet Union



The M-22 Uragan is a late Cold War era naval SAM system of Soviet origin. The Uragan is a naval version of the land based 9K37 Buk system. The ship based naval SAM system differs significantly from the land based system, but the missiles are practically similar.


The M-22 Uragan consists of a central command system and is connected to one or two single arm launchers, often located at the front and the rear of the vessel. The single arm launchers are fed by an automated below-deck magazine. The missiles are akin to their land based counterparts, and even universal for the 9M317 variant. Multiple fire control radars are located around the superstructure to provide a 360 degree coverage.

Fire control

The M-22 Uragan is controlled by the ZR-90 control station which receives target input from the ship's main 3D air search radar. In the Project 956 class these are several variants of the MR-750 Fregat radar. The targets to be engaged are distributed to one or more of the multiple 3R90 Orekh fire control radars. These illuminate the target for the semi-active radar homing guidance section of the missile. Two missiles can be simultaneously guided to the target. Minimum time from detection to missile launch is 6 seconds, but is 16 to 19 seconds following all launch procedures.


The 9M38 and 9M317 missiles have a minimum altitude of 15 m and minimum range of 3 km. Maximum altitude is 22 km for the 9M38 and 25 km for the 9M317. The 9M38 has a range of about 30 km, while the 9M317 may reach up to 50 km. These ranges are the absolute maximum. Practical range for the M-22 Uragan as claimed by the manufacturer are 25 km versus high altitude targets, 18 km for targets below 1 km altitude and 12 km versus inbound anti-ship missiles. Effective altitude is listed as 15 km against aircraft and 10 km versus missiles.


The M-22 Uragan entered service on the Soviet Project 956 Sarych (NATO: Sovremenny) class guided missile destroyers. Four ships to a modified design have been acquired by China. The two Chinese domestic Type-052B (NATO: Luyang I) also feature the Shtil-1 system. India acquired and produced several classes of ships armed with the Shtil and Shtil-1 export variants of the Yezh. India is also the only nation to use this naval SAM system in a single launcher setup on their frigates.


9M38M1 missile

M-22 Uragan naval SAM system with 9M38M1 missile on its MS-196 launch rail.
Source: - © Copyright lies with original owner

List of variants of the M-22 Uragan

3S90 Uragan
First production model for Soviet service. This variant uses the 9M38M1 missile.
3S90E Shtil
Export variant of the 3S90 Uragan.
3S90 Yezh
Improved version of the Uragan using the 9M317 missile. NATO reporting name is SA-N-7B or SA-N-12 Grizzly.
3S90E.1 Shtil-1
Export variant of the Yezh.

System composition

MS-196 launcher

Single arm launcher connected to a below deck magazine with for 24 missiles. It takes about 12 seconds to reload the launcher.

3R90 Orekh fire control radar

Fire control radar used to illuminate the target for the missiles. Each fire control radar has an internal MR-90 console with two operators. In case of loss of radar input the operators can guide the missile in SACLOS mode via optical tracker. Usually six radars are associated with a twin launcher setup. NATO reporting name is Front Dome.

9M38M1 missile

The 9M38M1 is a naval derivative of the 9M38 missile of the land based 9K37 Buk system. These missiles have a very high parts commonality, but are not interchangeable. The 9M38 series of missile can be identified by having much longer wings. NATO reporting name is SA-N-7.

9M317 missile

The 9M317 missile is used by the updated Yezh system, which is exported as Shtil-1. The 9M317 is an universal missile, meaning it can be used both on land and in the naval system. The 9M317 has a significantly longer range and slightly increased altitude envelope. The 9M317 can be identified by having shorter main wings. NATO reporting name is SA-N-12 and/or SA-N-7B.


Facts M-22 Uragan
Soviet Union
Naval SAM system
96 t for twin installation on Project 956 without missiles
129 t for twin installation with missiles
30 t for empty launcher and below deck magazine
5.2 m by 5.2 m wide and 7.42 m deep for below deck magazine
Air search radar
MR-710 Fregat 3D air search radar
Fire control radar
Up to 6x 3R90 Orekh
Target tracking
Maximum of 6 targets illuminated simultaneously and engaged with up to 12 missiles
MS-196 single arm launcher with below deck magazine
24 missiles per launcher, 48 in total
Missile types
9M38M1 for Uragan
9M317 for Yezh
Engagement envelope
22 km maximum for 9M38M1
25 km maximum for 9M317
15 km practical against fighter aircraft
10 km practical against missiles
15 m minimum
50 km maximum for 9M317
30 km maximum for 9M38M1
25 km practical versus high altitude targets for 9M38M1
18 km practical for targets below 1 km altitude
12 km practical versus inbound anti-ship missiles
3 km minimum



Talwar class

Indian class of frigates with 6 ships commissioned out of 10 planned. Armed with a single 3S90E.1 Shtil-1 with 24 9M317 missiles in total. There are four 3R90 fire control radars to provide a wide coverage.

Delhi class

Indian class of destroyers with 3 ships in class. Armed with 2x 3S90E Shtil with 24 9M38M1 missiles each. To be updated to Shtil-1 from 2022 onward.

Type-052B class

Chinese class of destroyers with 2 ships in class. Armed with 3x 3S90E.1 Shtil-1 with 9M317 missiles.