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Type 90



Overview


Type 90

Japanese Type 90 main battle tank on public display in 2007.

Source: Megapixie - © Public domain

Origin
Japan
Type
Main battle tank
Entered service
1990
Status
In service
Development
1976 - 1989
Developer
Japan - Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
Production
1990 - 2009
Producer
Japan - Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
Unit cost
$ 7.4 million in 2008
Number produced
341
Designations
TK-X (design project)
Notable users
Japan - JGSDF

Description


Introduction

The Type 90 is a main battle tank of Japanese origin. It was developed to supplement and replace the Type 74 in Japanese service. Externally the Type 90 looks similar to the early models of the Leopard 2. However, the design is actually quite different.

Layout

The Type 90 looks rather similar to the German Leopard 2 but is not a direct copy since it has a variety of distinguishing features. These differences include an autoloader and hydropneumatic suspension. The overall layout is conventional with the driver in the front, the turret in the middle and the engine and drivetrain at the rear.

Firepower

The main armament is a 120mm smoothbore cannon which fires NATO standard ammunition. The 120mm cannon is connected to an automatic loader. In theory the gun can be fired every 2 seconds, but in practice maximum rate of fire is 10 to 15 rpm. A 7.62mm Type 74 machine gun is mounted as a coaxial weapon. A 12.7mm M2HB heavy machine gun is pintle mounted on the turret roof.

Protection

The Type 90 features composite armor which generates a protection level over the frontal arc capable of withstanding all but the latest sabots and missiles. A fire suppression system, NBC protection and smoke grenade launchers are fitted.

Mobility

The tracked chassis provides a good all terrain mobility and road speeds of up to 70 km/h. A 1.500 hp diesel engine provides propulsion. The hydropneumatic suspension provides good crew comfort and a stable firing platform in rough terrain.

Users

The Type 90 is used only by Japan. Over 340 Type 90 have been produced and it has replaced the Type 61 and Type 74 tanks. As with all Japanese military equipment there are no export sales. The Type 10 is to supplement and eventually replace the Type 90 in service.

Variants


Type 90

Forward view of Type 90 main battle tank.
Source: Unknown author - © copyright lies with original owner

The Type 90 was produced only in a single version. Externally it looks similar to the Leopard 2A4. The most distinct difference is that the Type 90 has 6 roadwheels and a hydropneumatic suspension that allows either front or rear to be lowered.

Details


Facts Type 90
General
Origin
Japan
Type
Main battle tank
Crew
3 (commander, driver, gunner)
Dimensions
Weight
50.2 t combat load
Length
9.76 m gun forward
7.5 m hull
Width
3.43 m
Height
2.34 m turret roof
3.05 m overall
Main armament
Type
120mm L/44 smoothbore cannon
Mount
Main gun in turret
Ammunition
16 rounds in autoloader
Elevation
-5 to +18° elevation, powered
Traverse
360° traverse, powered
Stabilizer
Yes, both axis
Coaxial armament
Type
7.62mm Type 74 machine gun
Mount
Coaxial with main armament
Ammunition
Several thousand rounds
Traverse
Traverse and elevation as main armament
Stabilizer
Yes, both axis
Secondary armament
Type
12.7mm M2HB heavy machine gun
Mount
Pintle mount on turret roof
Ammunition
100 rounds ready to fire
Traverse
Manual traverse and elevation
Stabilizer
No
Chassis
Chassis type
Tracked chassis, 6 roadwheels
Layout
Drive sprocket front, idler rear
Tread
2.71 m
Track width
0.60 m
Length on ground
4.55 m
Ground pressure
0.89 kg/cm²
Suspension
Combination of torsion bar and hydraulic
Automotive
Engine model
Mitsubishi 10ZG32WT
Engine type
10-cylinder diesel
Power output
1.500 hp at 2.400 rpm
Transmission
Mitsubishi MT1500 automatic transmission
Gears
4 forward, 2 reverse
Fuel
1.100 L
Mobility
Speed
70 km/h
42 km/h in reverse
Range
350 - 400 km
Turn radius
Pivot
Power to weight ratio
29.9 hp/t
Obstacle crossing
Ground clearance
0.45 m
Wall
1 m
Trench
2.7 m
Gradient
60 %
Slope
40 %
Fording
2 m
Protection
Armor type
Modular ceramic and steel composite armor
Smoke system
2x3 or 2x4 smoke grenade dischargers
Equipment
Night vision
Yes
Radio
Yes
Fire control
Fire control computer
Laser range finder
Sights
10x gunner sight
3x / 10x commander's sight

Related articles


Type 90 ARV

The Type 90 ARV was developed to support the Type 90 main battle tank. Both vehicles are based on a similar chassis.

Type 10

The newer and smaller Type 10 main battle tank supplements the Type 90 and replaces the older Type 74.

Browning M2HB

The M2HB is fitted as secondary armament.

Sumitomo Type 74

The Type 74 is fitted as coaxial armament.