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TOS-1 Buratino



Overview


TOS-1 launch vehicle

TOS-1 Buratino launch vehicle on display alongside other prototype vehicles.

Source: Russian internet - © Copyright lies with original owner

Origin
Soviet Union
Type
Multiple rocket launcher
Entered service
1987 (combat use)
1995 (formal adoption)
Status
Obsolete
Development
1971 - 1979 (design project)
1980 (Soviet state trials)
1985 (thermobaric missile trials)
Developer
Soviet Union - KBTM (launch vehicle)
Soviet Union - NIIFP Lukin (thermobaric warhead)
Soviet Union - NPO Splav (artillery rocket
Production
Mid 1980's
Producer
Soviet Union - Omsktransmash (launch vehicle
Soviet Union - Splav (artillery rockets)
Number produced
Limited number, between 2 and 8 BM reported
Designations
Buratino
Nickname, Russian for "Pinocchio"
Obyekt 634
Index for BM launch vehicle

Description


Introduction

The TOS-1 Buratino is a multiple rocket launcher of Soviet origin. It was developed in the 1970's and 1980's as a standoff weapon for the chemical troops. In the Soviet Union the chemical troops are tasked with providing flamethrower support. The nickname "Buratino" translates to "Pinocchio" and refers to the massive launcher. The original TOS-1 system described in this article was produced and used only in very small numbers. The improved TOS-1A Solntsepyok incorporated many of the lessons learned. The TOS-1A remains in production today and has been exported to various nations.

Layout

The TOS-1 system consist of a tracked launch vehicles, a transloader and a 220mm artillery rocket designed specifically for this system. The launch vehicle is based on the T-72A tank chassis. Two large outriggers are fitted at the rear of the vehicle. The turret is replaced by a turntable that mounts the elevation and launch controls. The iconic large box launcher holds up to 30 of the 220mm artillery rockets. The transloader is based on a KrAZ-255B tactical truck. This 6x6 truck is fitted with crane and guide rail system and a storage area for the 220mm artillery rockets.

Firepower

The TOS-1 fires the 220mm MO.1.01.04 artillery rocket that was specifically designed for the TOS-1. The design was derived from naval anti-submarine rocket systems, most likely the RBU-6000. At first and incendiary warhead was developed. This was later augmented with a thermobaric warhead. This is more effective against troops both in the open and in cover. The effective range of the artillery rockets is rather limited, being less than many light mortars systems. Incendiary rounds can be fired out to 3.5 km and thermobaric warheads up to 2.7 km. The rockets are launched at a high angle. All 30 rockets can be launched in several seconds, with a massive overpressure blast on target as a result.

Protection

The TOS-1 launch vehicle is operated from under armor protection. The crew of 3 is seated in the hull and this retains the protection level of the T-72A main battle tank. The launcher and is front and rear covers protect the artillery rockets from small arms fire and shell splinters. Reloading is carried out in the open and the transloader is a soft-skin KrAZ-255 tactical truck. Therefore reloading is to be carried out away from the frontline.

Mobility

The TOS-1 is based on the T-72A tank chassis. This provides a good off road mobility, which is a necessity due to the very short range of the rockets. The mobility is slightly less due to the higher center of gravity and increased combat weight. The 780 hp engine provides a maximum road speed of 65 km/h.

Users

The TOS-1 Buratino was officially adopted by Russian forces in 1995, but was already used in combat around 1987. Only a very limited number of TOS-1 was produced. Reports vary between 2 and 8 launch vehicles being produced. The TOS-1 Buratino was used in the late stages of the Soviet Afghan war. Despite the many shortcomings it was reportedly used with great effect. The TOS-1 Buratino was also used in Chechnya in the 1990's. The improved TOS-1A is the successor and has been produced in larger numbers. The older short range rockets can be fired by the TOS-1A. It is likely that the original TOS-1 launch vehicles are no longer in active service and held in reserve.

Details


Components of the TOS-1 system

BM

Launch vehicle of the TOS-1 system. Based on T-72 chassis. Can be distinguished from the later TOS-1A system by its 30 round missile launcher with four rows of rockets.

TZM

Transloader for the TOS-1 launch vehicle. It is based on the KrAZ-255B 6x6 truck chassis. Reloading the BM is carried out by using the vehicle mounted crane.

MO.1.01.04

Artillery rocket with thermobaric warhead. This model is shorter than the MO.1.01.04M rocket used in the improved TOS-1A system. The effective range is rather short at 2.7 km.

Facts TOS-1 Buratino
General
Origin
Soviet Union
Type
Multiple rocket launcher
Crew
3
Dimensions
Weight
46 t combat load
Length
6.86 m in travel configuration
Width
3.46 m
Height
2.6 m in travel configuration
Main armament
Type
220mm MO.1.01.04 artillery rockets
Mount
30 round launcher
Ammunition
30 rockets, all ready to fire
Traverse
Fires over frontal arc
Range
2.7 km for thermobaric
3.5 km for incendiary
0.4 km minimum
Chassis
Chassis
Tracked chassis, 6 roadwheels
Layout
Idler front, drive sprocket rear
Suspension
Torsion bar
Automotive
Engine
V-46-6 V12 diesel
Power output
780 hp at 2.000 rpm
Mobility
Max speed
65 km/h
Range
550 km
Protection
Armor type
Steel

Media


Related articles


TOS-1A Solntsepyok

The TOS-1A is an improved version of the original TOS-1 system. Compared to the TOS-1 the TOS-1A is produced in larger numbers and is the model that has been exported to various nations.

KrAZ-255

The transloader for the TOS-1 Buratino is based on the KrAZ-255B tactical truck chassis. On the improved TOS-1A system this was replaced by a transloader based on a T-72A tank chassis.