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3K95 Kinzhal



Overview


Kinzhal

3K95 Kinzhal mounted on the deck of a Russian navy Udaloy class destroyer.
Source: P. Muscutt (US Navy) - © public domain

Origin
Soviet Union
Type
Naval SAM system
Entered service
1989
Status
In service
Development
1975 - Late 1980's
Developer
Soviet Union - Altair (Marine Scientific Research Institute of Radioelectronics)
Soviet Union - MKB Fakel (missile design)
Production
Late 1980's - present?
Producer
Soviet Union
Russia
Number produced
25 systems on 19 ships
Designations
SA-N-9 Gauntlet (NATO reporting name)
ZS-95
Cross Swords (NATO reporting name for MR-360 / 3R95 Podkat radar)
Kinzhal (Russian for "dagger")
Yozh (Russian for "hedgehog")
Klinok (Russian for "blade")
Notable users
Soviet Union
Russia

Description


Introduction

The 3K95 Kinzhal is a naval SAM system of Soviet origin. It is a naval adaptation of the land based self-propelled 9K330 Tor system (NATO: SA-15 Gauntlet). The NATO reporting name for the naval system is SA-N-9 Gauntlet. An improved model based on Tor-M1 is known as "Yozh". For export the Kinzhal is known as "Klinok". The design started earlier than the land based system, but entered service 3 year later in 1989.

Design

The 3K95 system is based on the 9M330 Tor missile, which are stored in vertical launch systems. The MR-360 Podkat radar set provides both search and tracking radars. The 3K95 uses the 3S95 rotary launcher. Four to eight of such launcher can be connected to a single radar system. Missiles are cold launched using a gas ejection system. A single system is operated by 13 people.

Fire control

The MR-360 Podkat radar set is located on the superstructure of the ship. This large radar set comprises of the 3R95 phased array fire control radar. This has a 60 by 60 degree sector in which it can guide missiles onto target. On top two parabolic search radars are fitted. These are fitted back to back. Each of these radars has an IFF system. Two electro-optical systems can be used to guide missiles onto target in a high ECM scenario.

Firepower

The 9M330-2 missile has an effective range of 1.5 to 12 km and may reach altitudes up to 6 km. Reaction time between detection and engagement is reported as 8 to 24 seconds. The effectiveness of the land based Tor system against missiles probably translates well to the naval system. This would make 3K95 one of the more capable systems against inbound anti-ship missiles.

Users

The 3K95 system is used on a variety of Soviet, and later Russian, ships. These range from large frigates to cruisers and an aircraft carrier. Minimum ship size is reported as 800 t displacement.

Details


Facts 3S95
General
Origin
Soviet Union
Type
Vertical launch unit for 3K95 Kinzhal
Dimensions
Module diameter
1.9 m
Module height
4.5 m
Weight
4.5 t without missiles
Characteristics
Design
Rotary vertical launch system
Capacity
8 missiles
Missile types
9M330-2 in Kinzhal and Klinok
9M331 in Yozh
Launch interval
3 seconds
Launch process
Cold start using gas ejector

Variants


Variants of the 3K95 system

Kinzhal
Original production model with 9M330-2 missile. Two targets can be engaged by up to four missiles in the 60 degree sector of the fire control radar.
Klinok
Export model of the Kinzhal system.
Yozh
Improved Kinzhal system based on Tor-M1 development. Fires the 9M331 missile. Four targets can be engaged simultaneously by up to 8 missiles. All targets must be in the 60 degree sector of the fire control radar.

Ship classes with 3K95 system

Project 11540 Yastreb frigate
4x8 missiles, 1 radar set. NATO reporting name: Neustrashimy class. 2 ships completed.
Project 1155 Fregat destroyer
8x8 missiles, 1 radar set. NATO reporting name: Udaloy class. 12 ships completed.
Project 11550 Fregat-M destroyer
8x8 missiles, 1 radar set. NATO reporting name: Udaloy II class. 1 ship completed.
Project 1144 Orlan cruiser
16x8 missiles, 2 radar sets. NATO reporting name: Kirov class. Fitted onto 3 of 4 ships completed.
Project 11435 aircraft carrier
24x8 missiles, 4 radar sets. NATO reporting name: Kuznetsov class. 1 ship completed.

Related articles


9K330 Tor

The Kinzhal naval SAM system uses the same missiles as found in the land based 9K330 Tor system.