3K95 Kinzhal mounted on the deck of a Russian navy Udaloy class destroyer.
Source: P. Muscutt (US Navy) - © public domain
The 3K95 Kinzhal is a naval SAM system of Soviet origin. It is a naval adaptation of the land based self-propelled 9K330 Tor system (NATO: SA-15 Gauntlet). The NATO reporting name for the naval system is SA-N-9 Gauntlet. An improved model based on Tor-M1 is known as "Yozh". For export the Kinzhal is known as "Klinok". The design started earlier than the land based system, but entered service 3 year later in 1989.
The 3K95 system is based on the 9M330 Tor missile, which are stored in vertical launch systems. The MR-360 Podkat radar set provides both search and tracking radars. The 3K95 uses the 3S95 rotary launcher. Four to eight of such launcher can be connected to a single radar system. Missiles are cold launched using a gas ejection system. A single system is operated by 13 people.
The MR-360 Podkat radar set is located on the superstructure of the ship. This large radar set comprises of the 3R95 phased array fire control radar. This has a 60 by 60 degree sector in which it can guide missiles onto target. On top two parabolic search radars are fitted. These are fitted back to back. Each of these radars has an IFF system. Two electro-optical systems can be used to guide missiles onto target in a high ECM scenario.
The 9M330-2 missile has an effective range of 1.5 to 12 km and may reach altitudes up to 6 km. Reaction time between detection and engagement is reported as 8 to 24 seconds. The effectiveness of the land based Tor system against missiles probably translates well to the naval system. This would make 3K95 one of the more capable systems against inbound anti-ship missiles.
The 3K95 system is used on a variety of Soviet, and later Russian, ships. These range from large frigates to cruisers and an aircraft carrier. Minimum ship size is reported as 800 t displacement.
The Kinzhal naval SAM system uses the same missiles as found in the land based 9K330 Tor system.
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