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25mm 2M-3


China: Type 61


Overview


2M-3

A Soviet 25mm 2M-3 turret in a museum.
Source: Vitaly V. Kuzmin - © copyright lies with original owner

Origin
Soviet Union
Type
Naval gun
Entered service
1953 for 2M-3
1954 for 2M-8
Status
Obsolete
Development
1945 - 1949
Developer
Soviet Union
Production
1953 - 1984 (Soviet production)
Producer
Soviet Union
China
Designations
Type 61 (Chinese production)
Notable users
Soviet Union
China

Description


Introductions

The 2M-3 is a naval gun turret of Soviet origin. It was developed shortly after World War 2 to arm various smaller combat ships, submarines and civilian ships supporting the navy. The used of the 25mm 110-PM autocannon is unique to the Soviet navy. They were not used on aircraft or land based applications.

Design


The design is based on the earlier 25mm 84-KM autocannon. The locally controlled open roof mount is rather simple and is fitted with two 110-PM autocannon, with the one positioned above the other. The single operator is seated on the left of the mount, the two guns are located in the middle and the ammunition is stored on the right. Normally the mount is operated hydraulically but manual control is fitted as backup. The guns are air cooled, but cooled using a water hose during sustained fire.

Firepower

The 110-PM autocannon fire the powerful 25x218mm round at a cyclic rate of fire of 450 rpm. The practical rate of fire is 270 to 300 rounds per minute. The 25mm rounds have a range of 2.5 km and may reach altitudes of 1.7 km. Since the weapons are manually aimed they are of limited use against fast moving fighter aircraft.

Platforms

The 2M-3 is fitted on a wide variety of small boats such as the Komar guided missile craft and the P-4 and P-6 motor torpedo boats. For only a few years the 2M-8 submarine mount was used on the Quebec, Whale, Whiskey and Zulu class submarines. In Chinese service they are used on the Hainan, Hoku, Huangfen, Lada and Shanghai classes as well as various mine warfare and auxiliary ships. In both Soviet and Chinese service newer ship classes were fitted with the larger and far more effective AK-230 turret.

Details


2M-3

A 2M-3 turret onboard a ship.
Source: www.navweaps.com - © copyright lies with original owner

List of variants of the 2M-3 turret

2M-3
Original 2M-3 mount with long recoil operated 110-PM autocannon.
2M-3M
Modified 2M-3 gun mount with gas operated 110-PM autocannon.
2M-8
Wet gun mount similar to 2M-3 for use on submarines. Guns are fed from 7 round clips instead of belts.
Type 61
Chinese production 2M-3 mount.
Facts 2M-3
General
Origin
Soviet Union
Type
Naval gun turret
Ordnance
Type
2x 25mm L/79 110-PM autocannon
Rate of fire
450 rpm for 2M-3
470 - 480 rpm for 2M-3M
Range
2.5 km effective range
1.7 km anti-aircraft ceiling
Muzzle velocity
900 m/s
Barrel life
12.000 rounds
Mount
Feed mechanism
Belt fed
Ammunition
65 round belt per gun
Traverse
360°
Traverse rate
40°/s hydraulic
15°/s manual
Elevation
-12° to +85°
Elevation rate
70°/s hydraulic
25°/s manual
Operation
Crew
1 on mount, others may supply ammunition
Fire control
None, local control only
Dimensions
Weight
1.500 kg for 2M-3
1.515 kg for 2M-3M

Related articles


Project 206M Shtorm class

A single 2M-3 mount is used on the bow of the Project 206M Shtorm (NATO: Turya) class fast torpedo boat.