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S-60


NATO: M1950, China: Type 59


Overview


57mm S-60

57mm S-60 towed anti-aircraft gun on display in the Saint Petersburg Artillery museum.
Source: One half 3544 - © Public domain

Origin
Soviet Union
Type
Anti-aircraft gun
Entered service
1950
Status
In service
Development
1945 - 1946
Developer
Soviet Union
Lead design: V.I. Grabinin
Production
1950 - 1957 (Soviet production)
Producer
Soviet Union
China
Hungary
Poland
Number produced
5.750 (Soviet production)
Designations
M1950 (NATO reporting name)
SZ-60 (Hungarian production)
Type 59 (Chinese production)

Description


Introduction

The S-60 is a towed single barrel 57mm anti-aircraft gun of Soviet origin. It was designed just after World War 2 to replace the 37mm M1939. It was also known as the AZP S-60 in Soviet service and as the M1950 in the West. It can be used as a standalone weapon or used in conjunction with fire control and radar. During several wars it proved to be a potent weapon system. In modern armies the S-60 is replaced by surface to air missiles. The S-60 remains a powerful but outdated weapon system.

Layout

The S-60 consists of a single 57mm 77-calibre autocannon mounted a turntable on a four wheel chassis. A crew of seven is needed to operate the weapon. A forward facing gun shield is fitted to protect the crew from aircraft and ground fire. The gun is fed from 4 round clips. The 57mm ammunition is not interchangeable with Soviet 57mm cannon ammunition used in the ZiS-2 anti-tank gun and ASU-57 assault gun. In the firing position the wheels are raised of the ground. The weapon is supported by four outriggers: one at the front, one at the rear and one on each side. A unit of fire consists of 200 rounds. These are carried on the 6x6 truck used to tow the S-60.

Fire control

The S-60 can be used as a standalone weapon. In this case the operator aims the weapon using the sight unit. Up to six S-60 can be slaved to a PUAZO-5A fire director and SON-4 fire control radar. Alternatively the newer PUAZO-6 fire director and SON-9 Grom-2 fire control radar are used. Finally the RPK-1 Vasa fire control system on Ural 375 truck was developed. For the Chinese Type 59 the trailer mounted GW-03 director with LLP12 computer are used.

Firepower

The S-60 is a very powerful weapon system. Anti-aircraft guns often rely on either a high rate of fire or powerful shells to destroy their target. The S-60 has both these features. The cyclic rate of fire of 105 to 120 rounds per minute allows for a practical rate of fire of 70 rounds per minute. The maximum horizontal range is 12 km with the maximum vertical range being 8.8 km. The maximum effective range is 4 km as a standalone weapon and 6 km with fire control. In combat the S-60 proved to be most useful versus fighter aircraft at altitudes between 0.5 and 1.5 km. When used against ground targets the effective range is up to 3 km.

Mobility

The S-60 is normally towed by 6x6 trucks such as the Ural 375 and Zil-151. It is designed to be used in a prepared firing position and cannot fire on the move. In an emergency situation the gun can be fired from its wheels but the chassis is severely strained and accuracy is impaired. The ZSU-57-2 self-propelled anti-aircraft gun features two 57mm guns as used in the S-60. It has a much higher mobility, but lacks the option for radar guidance.

Users

The S-60 was widely used by Soviet and Eastern European forces. It was also widely exported to Soviet allies the Middle East, Asia and Africa. In Soviet service the S-60 was replaced by the 9K33 Romb (NATO: SA-8 Gecko) self-propelled SAM system. By the late 1970's hardly any S-60 remained in service. However, the S-60 is still a very common weapon as it is used by many armies around the world.

Details


57mm S-60

57mm S-60 towed anti-aircraft gun on display in a museum in Israel.
Source: Bukvoed - © GNU Attribution - Share Alike license

Variants of the S-60

The S-60 is a towed 57mm anti-aircraft gun of Soviet origin. There are no variants of the S-60, although different fire control systems have been employed with the S-60. The S-60 has been produced in China since the late 1950's as the Type 59. The Type 59 is a close copy of the S-60 but is different in a few details and uses the Type GW-03 fire director. It was not produced to replace the 37mm M1939 series anti-aircraft guns in Chinese service, but to complement them. The Hungarian SZ-60 and Polish production S-60 are completely similar to the original S-60.

Facts S-60
General
Origin
Soviet Union
Type
Anti-aircraft gun
Crew
7
Ordnance
Ordnance
57mm S-60 L/77 autocannon
Shell type
57x348mmSR
Ammunition
4 shells per clip
Elevation
-2° to +87°
Traverse
360°
Rate of fire
105 to 120 rpm cyclic
70 rpm practical
Muzzle velocity
1.000 m/s
Max range
4 km standalone
6 km with fire control
12 km slant range
Dimensions
Weight
4.775 kg in firing position
4.875 kg in travel configuration
Length
8.6 m in travel configuration
Width
2.05 m in travel configuration
Height
2.46 m in travel configuration
Mobility
Carriage
4 wheels, twin axle
Four outriggers in firing position
Gun shield
Yes
Towing vehicle
6x6 heavy truck
Speed
60 km/h on road
35 km/h on gravel road
15 km/h cross country