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PHL81



Overview


Type 81

A Type 81 multiple rocket launcher in travelling position with bench erected and blast shields removed.
Source: www.sinodefense.com - © copyright lies with original owner

Origin
China
Type
Multiple rocket launcher
Entered service
1982
Status
In service
Development
1979 - 1981
Developer
China - Norinco
Production
1982 - 1990's?
Producer
China - Norinco
Designations
Type 81 (old naming system)
PHL81 (new naming system)
Notable users
China

Description


Introduction

The Type 81 is a late Cold War era multiple rocket launcher of Chinese origin. The design was derived from a captured Soviet made BM-21 Grad in the late 1980's. As such the Type 81 has the same performance as the BM-21 Grad. The Type 81 has been renamed as the PHL81 in Chinese service.

Layout

The Type 81 features a 40 round 122mm rocket launcher that is directly copied from the BM-21 Grad design. The launcher is placed on the rear of the indigenous SX2150 heavy duty 6x6 truck. Of the 7 crewmembers four are seated in the cab and the other three on the resupply vehicle or on a folding bench between the cab and the launcher. In the firing position the windows are covered by metal blast shields.

Firepower

The Type 81 fires 122mm spin stabilized rockets of the same pattern as used in the Soviet BM-21 Grad and a wide variety of warheads is available. The launcher holds 40 rockets that can be ripple fired in 20 seconds. Additional rockets are carried on resupply vehicles and it takes 7 men 8 to 10 minutes to reload. The standard rockets have a range of 20 km and models with a range of 30 and 40 km have been developed, although it is unknown if the Type 81 can use them or if they are restricted to newer designs.

Protection

The Type 81 is based on the unarmored SX2150 chassis and during travel, firing and reloading the crew is not protected at all. There are no NBC system or smoke grenade launchers.

Mobility

The SX2150 6x6 truck provides good mobility both on and off road, albeit at a mediocre speed. A Chongfa 200 hp diesel engine provides propulsion. It is unknown if the later SX-2150K with more powerful engine was ever used to serve as the basis for the Type 81.

Users

The main user of the Type 81 has always been the Chinese military. It is used at the corps and regiment level and replaced older 130mm systems. It Chinese service it is supplemented by the newer Type 90 system. Over time the Type 81 has been exported to various nations with ties to China in Asia and Africa.

Details


Type 81

A Type 81 multiple rocket launcher firing one of its 40 spin stabilized 122mm rockets.
Source: Chinese internet - © copyright lies with original owner

Variants and identification

The PHL81 multiple rocket launcher is a Chinese adaptation of the Soviet BM-21 Grad. It utelizes the same 40 round 122mm rocket launcher and is easily identified by its SX2150 6x6 truck chassis with its forward control cabin. Although it should not be confused by the Romanian APR-40 which looks similar, but uses the DAC-665T forward control truck. There are no variants of the Type 81.

Facts PHL81
General
Origin
China
Type
Multiple rocket launcher
Crew
7 (4 in cab, 3 on rear bench)
Dimensions
Weight
15.2 t combat load
Length
7.12 m
Width
2.5 m
Height
3.08 m
Main armament
Type
122mm Grad artillery rocket
Mount
40 round launcher on turntable
Ammunition
40 rockets, all ready to fire
Elevation
0 to +55°
Traverse
102° left and 70° right
Chassis
Chassis type
Wheeled chassis, 6x6
Wheelbase
3.13 + 1.35 m
Tread
2.08 m
Tire size
13.00 x20
Automotive
Engine
Chongfa M6150 diesel
Power output
200 hp
Transmission
Manual, 5 forward, 1 reverse
Fuel
280 L
Mobility
Speed
70 km/h on road
20 km/h cross country
Range
600 km
Turn radius
9 m
Power to weight ratio
13.2 hp/t
Obstacle crossing
Ground clearance
0.36 m
Gradient
58 %
Fording
1.2 m
Protection
Armor type
None
NBC system
None
Smoke system
None
Equipment
Night vision
None

Media