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AGM-88 HARM



Overview


AGM-88 HARM

AGM-88 HARM anti-radiation missile fitted with protective nose cone.
Source: US DoD - © Public domain

Origin
United States
Type
Anti-radiation missile
Entered service
1985
Status
In service
Development
1983
Developer
United States - Texas Instruments
Production
Mid 1980's - present
Producer
United States - Texas Instruments
United States - Raytheon
Unit cost
$ 284.000
Number produced
About 23.000 by 2014
Designations
HARM / High-speed Anti-radiation Missile

Description


Introduction

The AGM-88 HARM is an anti-radiation missile of US origin. It was developed in the early 1980's to replace the earlier AGM-45 Shrike and AGM-78 Standard ARM in US military service. The HARM is a more capable and versatile missile than its predecessors and has received various physical and software updates to match new radar technology.

Design

The HARM uses a passive radar homing seeker. The seeker homes in on the radar signals emitted from an enemy radar. A dual thrust smokeless solid propellant rocket motor provides the HARM with supersonic speed and a standoff range against most air defense systems. A large blast fragmentation warhead

Users

The HARM was acquired by both the US Navy and the Air Force. Many nations in NATO and nations with good diplomatic ties to the USA have acquired the HARM. It is used on a multitude of modern fighter aircraft, including the F-16, F/A-18, late model F-15's and the Tornado.

Variants of the HARM

AGM-88A
Initial production model. Operational since 1985, but pre-production models available as early as 1983. Known as AGM-88 Block I before redesinated as AGM-88A. Produced until replaced by the improved AGM-88B in 1987.
AGM-88B
Incorporates the Block II update, comprising of improved passive seeker with new software. Introduced in 1987. Block III update introduced in 1990 allows for software preset to be selected before deployment, instead of in the factory. A recent modification is known as Block IIIB and is practically and AGM-88D with the older type warhead. The Block IIIB update adds a GPS receiver for improved targeting of radars switching off, plus various software updates.
AGM-88C
Variant introduced in 1993, also known as Block IV, with new warhead and seeker. The new WDU-37/B warhead creates 12.800 wolfram fragments instead of the 25.000 steel fragments in the older WDU-21/B. The seeker has also been upgraded. It scans a wider frequency range and has a better signal processor. Software was later upgraded to Block V standard.
AGM-88D
The AGM-88D incorporates the Block VI update, which was developed by the USA, Germany and Italy. This update adds a GPS receiver for improved targeting of radars that switch off when an anti-radiation missile is inbound. Also various software updates from the Block V are included. When the Block VI update is applied to the AGM-88B it is known as AGM-88 Block IIIB.

Details


Facts AGM-88 HARM
General
Origin
United States
Type
Anti-radiation missile
Dimensions
Length
4.14 m
Diameter
0.25 m
Wingspan
1.1 m
Weight
355 kg
Guidance
Terminal phase
Passive radar homing
0.5 - 20 GHz frequency range (AGM-88C/D)
Initial phase
Inertial navigation system
GPS for AGM-88D and AGM-88B Block IIIB
Warhead
Type
WDU-21/B blast-fragmentation (AGM-88A/B)
WDU-37/B blast-fragmentation (AGM-88C/D)
Weight
66 kg
Fuse
FMU-111/B laser proximity fuse
Engagement envelope
Engine type
Solid propellant rocket motor
Engine model
Thiokol SR113-TC-1 dual-thrust rocket engine
Speed
2.280 km/h
Range
150 km