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100mm Creusot-Loire



Overview


100mm Modèle 1968

Side view of 100mm Modèle 1968 naval gun turret.
Source: Ludovic Péron - © GNU Attribution - Share Alike license

Origin
France
Type
Naval gun
Entered service
1957 for Modèle 1953
1971 for Modèle 1968
1986 for CADAM
1996 for 100 TR
Status
In service
Development
Early 1950's
Developer
France
Production
Mid 1950's - ?
Producer
France - Creusot-Loire
Number produced
147 Mle 1953 & 1964
61 Mle 1968
Designations
METL 53 (Modèle 1953 in German service)
Notable users
France
Germany

Description


Introduction

The 100mm Creusot-Loire is a dual purpose naval gun of French origin. It was developed in the early 1950's to replace both 127mm and 57mm guns in French service. Over time the design was improved and updated.

Design

The Creusot-Loire employs a single 100mm L/55 barrel connected to an automatic loader. The 100mm caliber was selected since the French navy deemed it adequate for shore bombardment while it is light enough for a high rate of fire against aircraft.

Firepower

The Creusot-Loire naval gun was deemed an effective gun, both against surface and aerial targets. The rate of fire is 60 or 78 rpm, depending on the type of mount. The 100mm range of shells includes high explosive, anti-aircraft and illumination rounds. Maximum range is just over 17 km. Practical range against surface targets is 12 km. Maximum anti-aircraft range is 8 km and the anti-aircraft ceiling is 6 km.

Users

The Creusot-Loire was fitted to a wide range of ships and over 200 gun mounts were produced. The main user was the French navy.

Early models


100mm Modèle 1953

Forward view of 100mm Modèle 1953 naval gun turret. Note the windows on both sides of the ordnance.
Source: Jean-Michel Roche - © GNU Attribution - Share Alike license

Known as Modèle 1953 for its design date. Early models can be identified by having two local control mounts. One on either side of the gun. The first round is loaded manually. The gun's recoil powers the automated loading system.

These early models were directed by off-mount non-digital fire control systems. Alternatively local control was employed. The left housing features controls for use against surface targets. The right housing is for anti-aircraft use, but its practical use is dubious and it was omitted from later designs.

Modèle 1953
Initial production model. Introduced in 1957, with series production since 1961. Also exported, most notably to Germany.
Modèle 1964
Variant of M1953 with higher rate of fire of 78 rpm and ability to integrate with newer electro-mechanical off-mount fire control system. Only ever used in French service.

Improved models


100mm Modèle 1968

Forward view of 100mm Modèle 1968 naval gun turret. Note that the vision block is only present on the left side of the turret.
Source: www.mdc.idv.tw - © copyright lies with original owner

The Modèle 1968 is an improved 100mm Creusot-Loire naval gun. The weight is reduced while at the same time the ability for digital fire control is added.

In order to reduce weight the local anti-aircraft fire control is removed. Therefore the Modèle 1968 turret is identified by having only a single cupola on the left side of the gun.

In the mid 1980's and upgrade package called CADAM became available, increasing the cyclic rate of fire from 60 to 78 rpm. CADAM is an abbreviation of "cadance améliorée", which is French for "increased rate of fire".

Modèle 1968
Improved variant of the 100mm Creusot-Loire family. Employs digital fire control input and has a reduced weight turret.
Modèle 1968 CADAM
Modèle 1968 turret with increased rate of fire. No external differences.

Modernized models


100mm Modèle 100 TR

Side view of 100mm Modèle 100 TR naval gun turret with angular turret housing to reduce radar cross section.
Source: www.defense.gouv.fr - © copyright lies with original owner

The Modèle 100 TR is an upgrade package for existing Modèle 1968 mounts applied in the 1990's. The name 100 TR is a combination of the 100mm caliber and "Technologie Rénovée", which is French for "renovated technology.

The improvements are aimed at improved reliabily, improved fire control and reduced radar signature. CADAM upgrade is fitted if not yet present. The ammunition system is improved with technology developed for the 100mm Compact Mk 2. The ready magazine is larger and has the ability to quickly select ammunition type. The hoist is faster and has the ability to reverse feed when selecting different type of ammunition.

The 100 TR is easily identified by is more angular turret housing without cupolas for local fire control.

Details


Facts 100mm Modèle 1968 100mm Modèle 100 TR
General
Origin
France
Type
Naval gun turret
Ordnance
Type
100mm 55-caliber
Rate of fire
60 rpm
78 rpm for CADAM
Range
17 km maximum
12 km practical
6 km anti-aircraft ceiling
Muzzle velocity
855 - 867 m/s
Barrel life
6.000 rounds at low rate of fire
3.000 rounds at high rate of fire
Mount
Feed mechanism
Automatic loader
Ammunition
35 round ready magazine
Single 35 rpm feed chute to below deck magazine
600 rounds in magazine
Traverse
-150° to +150°, powered
Traverse rate
40°/s
Elevation
-5° to +80°, powered
Elevation rate
25°/s
29°/s for CADAM
Operation
Crew
1 on mount (optional)
2 loaders below deck
Fire control
Digital external fire control input
Optional local control
Dimensions
Weight
21 t

Related articles


100mm Compact

The 100mm Compact was developed as a more suitable 100mm naval gun for export sales. The design is based on the Modèle 1968. Technology from the Compact Mk 2 was later implemented in the 100 TR.