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AMX-13/75



Overview


AMX-13/75

AMX-13/75 in the field.
Source: www.chars-francais.net - © copyright lies with original owner

Origin
France
Type
Light tank
Entered service
1952
Status
Limited service
Development
1946 - 1948
Developer
France - Atelier de Construction d'Issy-les-Moulineaux (AMX)
Production
1952 - 1964 (AMX-13/75)
Producer
France - AMX
France - Creusot-Loire
Number produced
Over 4.500 built by 1964
Designations
Char Lance SS-11 (AMX-13 with T75 upgrade)
Notable users
France
Israel
Singapore

Description


Introduction

The AMX-13 is an early Cold War era light tank of French origin. It was developed in the late 1940's to equip the post-World War 2 French forces. The AMX-13 proved to be a highly mobile and effective light tank in combat. By the end of the Cold War the AMX-13 became obsolete due to age and the advent of highly capable anti-tank guided missiles that fill the role of highly mobile tank destroyers.

Design

The AMX-13 uses a tracked chassis with the driver and engine located at the front and the fighting compartment at the rear. This chassis was later used in the AMX-VCI armored personnel carrier and AMX-105 and Mk F3 self-propelled howitzers. The AMX-13 uses a unique oscillating turret design. The cannon is mounted on a fixed cradle and the entire top half of the turret is hinged to provide elevation. The oscillating turret is used since the autoloader with its twin 6-round revolver style carousels require the main gun to remain in line with the loading mechanism. Over time the AMX-13 design was upgraded with various turret types and other types of equipment.

Protection

The steel armor provides protection against small arms fire and shrapnel all around. Over the frontal arc heavy machine gun fire is resisted. Smoke grenade launchers are fitted as standard. An NBC system is optional, but not present on most AMX-13 models.

Firepower

The original AMX-13 was fitted with a 75mm SA 50 high velocity cannon. This gun was inspired by the long barrel 75mm gun of the Nazi German Panther tank. Additionally, a version with a turret with 90mm cannon became available and for export sales a 105mm cannon was fitted. The main gun is equipped with a bustle mounted automatic loader that results in a high rate of fire. A 7.5mm AAT-52 machine gun is fitted as coaxial weapon and another can be fitted as a flexible weapon on the turret roof. For export sales these were often replaced by the 7.62mm AAT-NF1 or MAG machine guns. Some tanks in French service were fitted with SS-11 anti-tank missiles in order to improve effectiveness against newer tanks.

Mobility

The tracked chassis, limited weight and high power to weight ratio result in a good all terrain mobility. A 250 hp petrol engine provides propulsion, allowing for a maximum speed of 60 km/h. Various upgrade programs have been offered with newer and more fuel economic diesel engines. The AMX-13 is not amphibious.

Users

The primary user of the AMX-13 and its derivatives was the French army. The AMX-13 was exported in large numbers. The AMX-13 proved effective in combat with Israeli forces. In most armies the AMX-13 has been replaced, yet significant numbers remain in service today.

Variants of the AMX-13/75


AMX-13 Modèle 1951

Original production model introduced in 1952. Fitted with FL-10 turret with the long barrel 75mm SA 50 high velocity cannon.

AMX-13 T75

French army upgrade with SS-11 anti-tank guided missiles to improve firepower against late Cold War era threats. These models were later upgraded with improved fire control systems. T75 models are also nicknamed "Char Lance SS-11".

Media


Details


Facts AMX-13/75
General
Origin
France
Type
Light tank
Crew
3 (commander, driver, gunner)
Dimensions
Weight
14.8 t
Length
6.36 m gun forward
4.88 m hull
Width
2.5 m
Height
2.3 m to top of commander's hatch
Main armament
Type
75mm Model SA 50 cannon
Mount
Main gun in turret
Ammunition
37 rounds, 12 ready to fire in turret bustle loader
Elevation
-5 to + 12.5°
Elevation rate
5°/s
Traverse
360°
Traverse rate
30°/s
Stabilizer
No
Coaxial armament
Type
7.5mm AAT-52 machine gun
Mount
Coaxial with main armament
Ammunition
3.600 rounds in total
Traverse
Traverse and elevation as main armament
Secondary armament
Type
7.5mm AAT-52 machine gun
Mount
Pintle mount on turret roof
Ammunition
3.600 rounds in total
Traverse
Manual traverse and elevation
Chassis
Chassis type
Tracked chassis, 5 roadwheels
Layout
Drive sprocket front, idler rear
Ground pressure
0.76 kg/cm²
Track width
0.35 m
Track on ground
3.0 m
Tread
2.16 m
Suspension
Torsion bar
Automotive
Engine model
Sofam Model 8Gxb
Engine type
8-cylinder water-cooled petrol
Power output
250 hp at 3.200 rpm
Transmission
Manual, 5 forward, 1 reverse
Fuel
480 L
Mobility
Speed
60 km/h on road
Range
350 - 400 km on road
Turn radius
Skid turns
Power to weight ratio
16.9 hp/t
Obstacle crossing
Ground clearance
0.4 m
Wall
0.65 m
Trench
1.6 m
Gradient
60 %
Fording
0.6 m
Protection
Armor type
Steel
Armor thickness
15 mm @ 55 degree hull front
20 mm hull side
10 mm hull top
15 mm hull rear
25 mm @ 45 degree turret front
25 mm turret sides
10 mm turret top
NBC system
No
Smoke system
350 - 400 km on roads
Equipment
Night vision
No
Radio
Yes

Vehicles based on AMX-13 chassis


(note: incomplete list)

AMX-13/90

AMX-13/75 converted in the late 1960's with a 90mm main gun firing HEAT-FS rounds.

AMX-D

Armored recovery vehicle based on the AMX-13 chassis.

AMX-105

Self-propelled howitzer with 105mm L/23 howitzer in an enclosed superstructure.

Mk F3

Self-propelled howitzer with short barrel 155mm howitzer that is operated in the open from behind the vehicle.

AMX-13 DCA

Self-propelled anti-aircraft gun based on the AMX-13 chassis. Armed with two 30mm Hispano-Suiza autocannon.