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BMD-1


NATO: M1970


Introduction


BMD-1

Russian BMD-1 airborne combat vehicles in the snow in 2011.
Source: Vitaly V. Kuzmin - © GNU Attribution Share Alike license

Origin
Soviet Union
Type
Mechanized infantry combat vehicle
Entered service
1969 for BMD-1
1971 for BMD-1K
1979 for BMD-1P
Status
In service
Development
1965 - 1969
Developer
Soviet Union
Production
1968 - 1987
Producer
Soviet Union - VTZ / Volgograd tractor plant
Number produced
2.200 BMD-1 and 1.000 BMD-1P
340 BMD-1K and 220 BMD-1PK
Designations
BMD / Boevaya Mashina Desantnaya
Russian for "airborne combat vehicle"
M1970 (NATO reporting name)
Notable users
Soviet Union

Description


Introduction

The BMD-1 is a mechanized infantry combat vehicle of Soviet origin. It was specifically designed for use by the Soviet air assault division and has the unique ability to be air dropped from cargo planes. BMD stands for "Boevaya Mashina Desantnaya", which is Russian for "airborne combat vehicle". The BMD-1 was used alongside the contemporary BMP-1, which was produced in much larger quantities.

Design

The BMD-1 is operated by a crew of three and carries four infantry inside. The driver is seated in the front in the middle. An infantryman on each side operate the bow machine guns. The two man turret is placed in the middle. The infantry may exit the vehicle through a large hatch behind the turret. The engine is mounted at the rear. The ground clearance is adjustable due to the hydraulic suspension.

Firepower

The BMD-1 is fitted with the same turret as the BMP-1. It is armed with a 73mm 2A28 low pressure cannon, 7.62mm PKT coaxial machine gun and AT-3 missile launcher on top of the cannon. Additionally there are two PKT bow machine guns mounted at the front of the vehicle. The mix of armament allows the BMD-1 to engage both infanty and armored vehicles. In the BMD-1P the AT-3 launch rail is removed and a pintle mounted AT-4 missile launcher is fitted.

Protection

The aluminium armor protects the crew from small arms fire and shell splinters. Heavy machine gun rounds are likely to penetrate the armor. Early versions had a magnesium compound armor for reduced weight, but this was changed to aluminum as it became apparent that the armor itself was prone to catch fire. An NBC system is fitted, smoke grenade launchers are not.

Mobility

Due to its light weight the BMD-1 has a very good mobility. A 240 hp diesel engine provides propulsion. The limited weight results in a very high power to weight ratio and limited ground pressure. The BMD-1 is fully amphibious and is propelled in the water by two water jets. The BMD-1 may be fitted with parachutes and can be air dropped from low flying transport aircraft.

Users

The main user of the BMD-1 were the Soviet air assault divisions. A small amount was exported. Most remaining BMD-1 ended up in Russia due to the break up of the Soviet Union, but some successor states inherited a small number of BMD's.

Variants


BMD-1

Initial production model. First introduced in 1969. The BMD-1 is a mechanized infantry combat vehicle developed for the Soviet air assault divisions. It is a low weight, highly mobile, thinly armored and well armed vehicle. The original version mounts a 73mm 2A28 low pressure cannon with launch rail for 9M14 Malyutka (NATO: AT-3) missile and three PKT machine guns.

BMD-1K

Command variant of the BMD-1, first introduced in 1971. Additional radio equipment is fitted and an APU allows for continuous use of all electric equipment with the engine switched off. The crew of six is a dedicated command team. No infantry is carried and the ammunition load is reduced. Known as BMD-1PK after a similar upgrade as the BMD-1P.

BMD-1P

Upgrade of BMD-1's with more capable anti-tank guided missiles. Produced as new vehicles and as upgrade of existing BMD-1's. The launcher over the main barrel is replaced by a 9P135M pedestal mounted launcher on the turret roof. This has the ability to launch the either the 9M113 Konkurs (NATO: AT-5) missile and the smaller 9M111 Fagot (NATO: AT-4).

BMD-2

The BMD-2 is the successor of the BMD-1. BMD-2 uses a new and different shape turret with 30mm 2A42 atuconnon. Whereas the BMD-1 reused the turret of the BMP-1, the turret of the BMD-2 is a custom design.

Details


Facts BMD-1 BMD-1K BMD-1P
General
Origin
Soviet Union
Type
Airborne combat vehicle
Crew
2 + 6 (driver, gunner, 6 troops including commander)
Dimensions
Weight
7.2 t combat load
Length
5.40 m
Width
2.80 m
Height
1.97 m with suspension raised
1.67 m with suspension lowered
Main armament
Type
73mm 2A28 Grom low pressure cannon
Mount
Main gun in turret
Ammunition
40 rounds
Elevation
-5° to +30°, powered or manual
Elevation rate
Up to 6°/s
Traverse
360°, powered or manual
Traverse rate
Up to 20°/s
Rate of fire
6 to 7 rpm
Coaxial armament
Type
7.62mm PKT machine gun
Mount
Coaxial with main armament
Ammunition
4.000 rounds in total, 250 ready to fire
Traverse
Traverse and elevation as main armament
Anti-tank armament
Type
9K11 Malyutka anti-tank guided missile
Mount
Launch rail over 73mm cannon
Ammunition
9M14 or 9M14M anti-tank missile
3 missiles, 1 ready to fire
Traverse
360°, powered
Missile control
9S428 system for MCLOS guidance
Bow armament
Type
2x 7.62mm PKT machine gun
Mount
One gun in either corner of the bow
Ammunition
4.000 rounds in total, 250 ready to fire
Traverse
Manual traverse and elevation
Stabilizer
No
Chassis
Chassis type
Tracked chassis, 5 roadwheels
Layout
Idler front, drive sprocket rear
Ground pressure
0.47 kg/cm²
Suspension
Hydropneumatic, variable height
Tread
2.38 m
Automotive
Engine model
5D20-240
Engine type
15.9 L four stoke V6 liquid-cooled diesel
Power output
240 hp at 2.400 rpm
Transmission
Manual, 4 forward
Fuel
280 L
Mobility
Speed
61 km/h on road
35 km/h off road
9 - 10 km/h afloat
Range
500 km on road
96 km afloat
Power to weight ratio
33.3 hp/t
Obstacle crossing
Ground clearance
Variable, 0.10 to 0.45 m
Wall
0.7 m
Trench
2.5 m
Gradient
32°
Fording
Amphibious
Protection
Armor type
Aluminum
Armor thickness
15 mm at 78° upper hull front
15 mm at 50° lower hull front
10 mm hull sides and rear
26 to 33 mm mantlet
23 mm at 42° turret front
19 mm at 36° turret side
13 mm at 30° turret rear
6 mm turret top
NBC system
Yes
Smoke system
No
Equipment
Night vision
Yes, for driver and gunner
Fire control
1PN22M1 or M2 periscopic sight
6x day view with 15° angle
6.7x passive night vision with 6° view and 400 m range
Radio
1x R-123 or R-123M

Media


Related articles


BMD-2

The BMD-2 uses a similar hull to the BMD-1, but uses a new and different turret. Whereas the BMD-1 reused the turret of the BMP-1, the turret of the BMD-2 is a custom design.

PKT

The BMD-1 is fitted with three PKT machine guns. One as coaxial armament and two are fitted as bow mounted machine gun.