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2S1 Gvozdika


NATO: M1974


Overview


2S1 Gvozdika

Slovak army 2S1 Gvozdika self-propelled howizer during an exercise in 2013.
Source: HawkeyeSlovak - © GNU Attribution Share Alike license

Origin
Soviet Union
Type
Self-propelled howitzer
Entered service
1972
Status
In service
Development
1967 - 1972
Developer
Soviet Union
Production
1972 - 1992
Producer
Soviet Union - Kharkiv Tractor Plant (KhTZ)
Bulgaria
Poland - Huta Stalowa Wola
Number produced
Over 10.000
Designations
SAU-122 (Russian service)
Gvozdika (nickname)
Russian for "carnation"
M1974 (NATO reporting name)
Goździk (Polish service)

Description


Introduction

The 2S1 Gvozdika is a tracked 122mm self-propelled howitzer of Russian origin. It was developed in the late 1960's and entered large scale production in 1971. 2S1 was the GRAU designation for the new weapon system. In service the name Gvozdika, carnation in English, is most common. In the West it was known as the M1974, based on the year it was first observed by the West.

Layout

The 2S1 has a conventional layout with the engine in the front and the turret at the rear. The crew of four consists of a commander, driver, gunner and loader. The driver is seated on the left of the engine with the rest of the crew seated in the turret. The chassis is a modified version of the MT-LB. It is somewhat higher and longer and features an additional road wheel.

Firepower

The 2S1 is fitted with the 2A31 howitzer, which is an adaptation of the ordnance of the towed D-30 howitzer. The short 122mm ordnance allows normal shells to be fired up to 15.3 km. Rocket assisted shells can be fired up to 21.9 km. A total of 40 rounds can be carried. Normally rounds from outside the vehicle would be used as only 16 rounds are directly accessible from the inside and outside there is more room for fusing the rounds. The 2S1 is not fitted with any secondary armament.

Protection

The 2S1 can be operated under full armor protection. The steel hull protects the crew from small arms fire and shell splinters. An NBC system is standard, but no smoke grenades are fitted.

Mobility

The 2S1 is fitted with a 300 hp V8 diesel engine coupled to a manual transmission. The 2S1 is fully amphibious and uses its tracks to propel it in the water.

Users

The 2S1 was widely adopted by Soviet states and its allies around the world. It was issued 36 units per artillery and motorized infantry division and 72 per tank division. Over 10.000 units were built until production ceased with the fall of the iron curtain. Production also took place in Bulgaria and Poland. Currently the 2S1 can still be found in use by many nations. Those who have the financial means are replacing the 2S1 with more modern self-propelled howitzers.

Variants


2S1 Gvozdika

Finnish 2S1 Gvozdika self-propelled howitzer being transported by train.
Source: www.kr.blog.yahoo.com - © copyright lies with original owner

The 2S1 is an amphibious self-propelled howitzer with a 122mm gun in a fully enclosed turret. The 2S1 is essentially a modified MT-LB hull with the ordnance of the towed D-30 cannon. There are no real variants of the 2S1. The Polish production model features a slightly different engine.

Some foreign developments look very similar to the 2S1. These include the Romanian Model 89 and Iranian Raad-1.

The modified MT-LB chassis has also been used for other applications. One of these is the UR-77 Meteorit minefield clearance vehicle.

Details


Facts 2S1 Gvozdika
General
Origin
Soviet Union
Type
Self-propelled howitzer
Crew
4 (commander, driver, gunner, loader)
Dimensions
Weight
15.7 t combat load
Length
7.26 m
Width
2.85 m
Height
2.29 m turret roof
2.73 m overall
Main armament
Type
122mm 2A31 howitzer
Mount
Main gun in turret
Ammunition
40 rounds, 16 ready to fire
Elevation
-3° to +70°, powered
Traverse
360°, powered
Rate of fire
5 rpm max
1 - 2 rpm sustained
Range
15.3 km standard shells
21.9 km rocket assisted shells
Stabilizer
No
Chassis
Chassis type
Tracked chassis, 7 roadwheels
Layout
Drive sprocket front, idler rear
Track width
0.35 m
Ground pressure
0.49 kg/cm²
Suspension
Torsion bar
Automotive
Engine
YaMZ-238N V8 diesel
Power output
300 hp
Transmission
Manual, 5 forward, 1 reverse
Fuel
550 L
Mobility
Speed
62 km/h on road
5 km/h afloat
Range
500 km
Power to weight ratio
19.1 hp/t
Obstacle crossing
Ground clearance
0.40 m
Wall
0.7 m
Trench
2.2 m
Gradient
35°
Fording
Amphibious
Protection
Armor type
Steel
Armor thickness
Up to 20 mm
NBC system
Yes
Smoke system
No
Equipment
Night vision
Yes
Radio

Media


Related articles


2S3 Akatsiya

The 2S3 Akatsiya is a contemporary Soviet self-propelled howitzer with larger caliber ordnance.

MT-LB

The 2S1 self-propelled howitzer is based on a lengthened MT-LB chassis.

UR-77 Meteorit

The UR-77 Meteorit is a mine clearance vehicle based on the chassis of the 2S1. UR-77 is able to launch two line charges to clear a path in a minefield.