Soviet 125mm 2A46M-1 smoothbore gun on display outside the Motovilikha plant in Perm where it was produced. Photographed in 2012.
Source: Smell U Later -
© CC BY-SA 3.0
1974 for 2A46
1976 for 2A46-1
1982 for 2A46M-1
2005 for 2A46M-5
1974 - present
No. 9 plant in Ekaterinburg
Motovilikha plant in Perm
No. 9 plant in Ekaterinburg
Well over 20.000
D-81TM (factory index)
2A46 (GRAU index)
1st generation 2A46
First version of the 2A46 cannon. Developed for use with T-64 and T-80 type autoloader. Introduced in 1974 ion T-64A.
Similar to 2A46 but adds the ability for firing 9M112 Kobra ATGMs from the barrel. Introduced in 1976 on T-64B. Also used on T-80B obr 1978 and 1980.
Variant of the 2A46 for used on the T-72 with its different style of autoloader. First introduced in 1976 on the T-72 Ural-1 and also used on T-72A series.
2nd generation 2A46
Modernized version of the 2A46. Allows for the barrel to be changed without removing the breech from the turret. Also introduces a chrome lined barrel. Designed or introduced in 1980. Used on T-72B and original T-90 with cast turret.
Variant of the 2A46M for use with the T-80 style autoloader. Reportedly differs from 2A46M in being autofrettaged. Introduced in 1982 on T-80B obr 1982. Used on the T-80BV and early production models of T-80U.
3rd generation 2A46
Updated model of the 2A46M-1 for use with the T-80 style autoloader. More rigid and precisely produced barrel has reduced dispersion. The breech allows for longer rod APFSDS to be used. Introduced in 1990 on the T-80U.
Similar improvements as the 2A46M-4, but the breech design is suited for the T-72 style autoloader. Introduced in 2005 on T-90A. Used on T-72B3, T-72B3M, T-90A and T-90M tanks.
Ukrainian copy of the 2A46 series. Believed to be akin to the 2A46M-1 or M-4 since it is used on the post-Soviet T-80UD and T-84 produced in Ukraine.
Chinese copy of the 2A46M for use with a T-72 style autoloader. Used in domestic designs such as the ZTZ96 and ZTZ99 families of main battle tanks.
T-64 style autoloader for 2A46, 2A46-2
T-72 style autoloader for 2A46-1
Two part separate loading ammunition
Semi-combustible propellant case
800 EFC for 2A46 and 2A46M
1.200 EFC with regular ammo for 2A46M-4/M-5
600 EFC with long rod ammo for 2A46M-4/M-5
Rate of fire
8 rpm for T-64 and T-80 style autoloader
7 rpm for T-72 and T-90 style autoloader
1 to 4 rpm for emergency manual loading
4.500 bar for 2A46-2
5.000 to 5.100 bar for 2A46M
6.000 to 6.500 bar for 2A46M-5
2 asymmetrical buffers for 2A46
2 symmetrical buffers for 2A46M and later
0.30 to 0.34 m
Note: incomplete list
The T-72 Ural-1 was introduced in 1976 and was the first T-72 to be fitted with the 2A46 type cannon, the 2A46-1 to be precise. The very first T-72's introduced earlier used the 2A26M2 cannon.
The majority of T-72A were produced with 2A46-1 cannon. Late production vehicles might have been fitted with 2A46M.
Deep modernization of existing stocks of T-72 tanks. Both T-72B3 and T-72B3M are armed with the 2A46M-5 cannon.
Early model T-80B's were armed with the 2A46-2, while since 1982 the 2A46M-1 was fitted.
The T-80BV is armed with the 2A46M-1 cannon.
The T-80U was at first produced with the 2A46M-1 gun. From 1990 onward the 2A46M-4 was used.
Deep modernization of existing T-80BV tanks. The upgrades include installation of the 2A46M-4 cannon.
The 2A26 is the predecessor to the 2A46. The 2A26 was the first Soviet 125mm smoothbore main gun, but was plagued by issues that were solved in the 2A46.
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