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100mm D-10



100mm Type 69

Close-up of a 100mm Type 69 gun on a Chinese produced former Iraqi Type 69-II tank on display at Musée des Blindés in France.
Source: Victor den Bak - © Public domain

Soviet Union
Entered service
1944 for D-10S
1947 for D-10T
In service
Mid WW2 for D-10S
Soviet Union - OKB-9
1944 - 1978 (USSR)
Up to present day (elsewhere)
Soviet Union - No.9 Sverdlovsk plant
Soviet Union - No. 172 Perm plant
Czechoslovakia - ZTS
Number produced
Over 50.000 vehicles with D-10
52-PT-512 (GRAU index)



The D-10 is a World War 2 era cannon of Soviet origin. The D-10 was derived from the 100mm B-34 naval gun and has a similar ballistic trajectory. This design was adapted for use as a towed anti-tank gun, the BS-3, and as armament for the SU-100 self-propelled anti-tank gun during the later stages of World War 2. It was produced in the largest numbers as the D-10T for use on main battle tanks used from the early stages of the Cold War up to present day.


The D-10 is a rifled 100mm gun with sliding breech block. It is manually loaded with single piece ammunition. The BS-3 has a muzzle brake, while the D-10S and D-10T variants for use on vehicles do not. Early models did not have a fume extractor. A fan was installed in the crew compartment, but was found inadequate. The vast majority of D-10T variant have a fume extractor near the muzzle. The D-10T was the first tank gun to be fitted with a stabilizer. Starting with a horizontal plane stabilizer in the D-10TG. This functioned but also proved lethal to the crew, having little influence on the moving breech section. The D-10T2S introduced a more capable two plane stabilizer and a turret basket proved part of the solution to make the system more practical. Upgrade programs applied in the 1980's retrofitted these cannon with a thermal sleeve.


The D-10 fires a range of single piece ammunition. In World War 2 the ammunition consisted of the BR-412 APCBC series of projectiles and OF-412 high explosive fragmentation. In the early Cold War various APDS and HEAT rounds were introduced. Effective range is about 4 km for APCBC, up to 15 km for HE-frag in ballistic arc, 2 km for APDS and 4 km for HEAT. Rate of fire is about 5 to 6 rpm, but also depends on the layout and ergonomics of the vehicle. Various other nations and companies have introduced 100mm ammunition. A guided missile in the form of the 9K116 Bastion can also be launched if specific fire control equipment is present.


In the later stages of World War 2 the BS-3 towed anti-tank gun and SU-100 tracked tank destroyer were introduced. As a tank gun the D-10T featured on several prototypes just after the war. The T-54 and T-55 series of main battle tanks were the main platform for this gun.


The D-10 was first adopted by the USSR, which was the primary user until it was replaced by larger caliber guns on more modern tank designs. China produced large quantities of D-10 as the Type 59. Various other nations produced the D-10. With the sales of T-54 and T-55 series of tanks the D-10 was exported to many different nations. In various conflicts vehicles armed with the D-10 are still in use.


Soviet D-10 variants

Towed anti-tank gun, first introduced in 1944. Features a double baffle muzzle brake. GRAU index is 52-P-412.
D-10 cannon intended for mounting in a casemate superstructure of a self-propelled anti-tank gun. Has no muzzle brake or bore evacuator. GRAU index 52-PS-412. A D-10SU with added balancing system was used in prototypes intended to replace the SU-100, but was never produced in quantity.
D-10T (early)
Prototype variant of the D-10T tank gun developed in 1944. Also known as D-10TK. Used on a single T-44-100 prototype in 1945, the T-34-100 and T-54 obr 1945 prototypes.
D-10T (prod)
First production variant of the D-10T, the variant intended for use on tanks. Introduced in 1946. Used on original early production models of the T-54. There is no bore evacuator. GRAU index is 52-PT-412.
Modification of existing D-10T with muzzle counterweight in order to function with the two axis stabilizer later used in the D-10T2S. Developed as early as 1950, but only modified in scale in the late 1950's during upgrade of older T-54 models to T-54B standard.
Variant of the D-10T for use with the STP-1 "Gorizont" single plane stabilizer as used in the T-54A. First production model D-10 gun to use a bore evacuator, which is located near the muzzle. Introduced in 1954 with GRAU index being 52-PT-412S.
Variant of the D-10T for use with the STP-2 "Zyklon" two plane stabilizer as used in the T-54B, T-54M, T-55 and T-55A. Introduced in 1956 with GRAU index being 52-PT-412D. In 1983 a thermal sleeve was added when upgrades to T-55AM2, T-55AD, T-55AMV and T-55M were carried out.

Foreign D-10 variants

Type 59
Chinese production model of the D-10TG. Produced with Soviet assistance since 1957 for use on the Type 59 tank.
Type 69
Local updated variant of the Type 59 cannon after the Soviet-Sino split. Used on the Type 59-I domestic tank and Type 69 export tank. Fitted with two plane stabilizer and often used in conjunction with laser range finder.
Type 69-II
Updated Type 69 tank gun for use with a new type of stabilizer and fire control system.

100mm D-10T

Close-up of a 100mm D-10T gun on a T-54 tank on display at Musée des Blindés in France.
Source: Victor den Bak - © Public domain


Facts D-10T
Soviet Union
Feed system
Manually loaded, single piece ammunition
Barrel length
5.35 m barrel with chamber
4.63 m rifled section
40 grooves, 3.0 m twist rate
Muzzle velocity
About 900 m/s for APCBC, HE-Frag or HEAT
About 1.400 m/s for APDS
Manually loaded, single piece ammunition
Rate of fire
4 to 6 rpm
Horizontal sliding breech
Recoil system
Hydraulic buffer
Hydraulic recuperator
Recoil stroke
0.57 m maximum
0.49 to 0.55 m normal
1.430 kg cannon with breech
5.61 m overall
5.35 m barrel with chamber


100mm BS-3

Towed anti-tank gun, first introduced in 1944. Features a double baffle muzzle brake. GRAU index is 52-P-412.


Self-propelled anti-tank gun, first introduced in 1944. Casemate structure on T-34 medium tank chassis. Features a D-10S gun without muzzle brake or bore evacuator.


First production model of the T-55 was already fitted with the D-10T2S gun, but without thermal sleeve. The thermal sleeve was retrofitted later on, often during upgrade to the T-55M / AM standard


The TO-55 is a flamethrower tank derived from the T-55. It retains a fully functional D-10T2S main gun.


Deep modernization of the T-55 fitted with updated mobility, protection and fire control systems. Fitted with the D-10T2S main gun with thermal sleeve, two axis stabilizer and laser range finder.


Variant of the T-55AM fitted with Kontakt-1 explosive reactive armor. Fitted with the D-10T2S main gun.

Type 59

Chinese main battle tank derived from the T-54. Armed with a 100mm Type 59 rifled gun with horizontal stabilization in its original form. The updated Type 59-I features a Type 69 main gun with two axis stabilizer. Later Type 59 variants switched to local copies of the British 105mm L7 rifled gun firing NATO spec ammunition.

Related articles

115mm U-5TS

The 115mm U-5TS smoothbore gun was developed for the T-62. These guns may look similar at a glance. The fume extractor is the easiest way to distinguish D-10T from U-5TS.